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1.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957404

ABSTRACT

Retrospective studies showed a relationship between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality, with an inverse relation between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and circulating calcifediol levels. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the length of hospital stay and clinical improvement in patients with vitamin D deficiency hospitalized with COVID-19. The study was randomized, double blind and placebo controlled. A total of 50 subjects were enrolled and received, in addition to the best available COVID therapy, either vitamin D (25,000 IU per day over 4 consecutive days, followed by 25,000 IU per week up to 6 weeks) or placebo. The length of hospital stay decreased significantly in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (4 days vs. 8 days; p = 0.003). At Day 7, a significantly lower percentage of patients were still hospitalized in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (19% vs. 54%; p = 0.0161), and none of the patients treated with vitamin D were hospitalized after 21 days compared to 14% of the patients treated with placebo. Vitamin D significantly reduced the duration of supplemental oxygen among the patients who needed it (4 days vs. 7 days in the placebo group; p = 0.012) and significantly improved the clinical recovery of the patients, as assessed by the WHO scale (p = 0.0048). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization was improved by administration of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Hospitalization , Humans , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957366

ABSTRACT

Exercise limitation in COVID-19 survivors is poorly explained. In this retrospective study, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was coupled with an oxidative stress assessment in COVID-19 critically ill survivors (ICU group). Thirty-one patients were included in this group. At rest, their oxygen uptake (VO2) was elevated (8 [5.6-9.7] mL/min/kg). The maximum effort was reached at low values of workload and VO2 (66 [40.9-79.2]% and 74.5 [62.6-102.8]% of the respective predicted values). The ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide remained within normal ranges. Their metabolic efficiency was low: 15.2 [12.9-17.8]%. The 50% decrease in VO2 after maximum effort was delayed, at 130 [120-170] s, with a still-high respiratory exchange ratio (1.13 [1-1.2]). The blood myeloperoxidase was elevated (92 [75.5-106.5] ng/mL), and the OSS was altered. The CPET profile of the ICU group was compared with long COVID patients after mid-disease (MLC group) and obese patients (OB group). The MLC patients (n = 23) reached peak workload and predicted VO2 values, but their resting VO2, metabolic efficiency, and recovery profiles were similar to the ICU group to a lesser extent. In the OB group (n = 15), no hypermetabolism at rest was observed. In conclusion, the exercise limitation after a critical COVID-19 bout resulted from an altered metabolic profile in the context of persistent inflammation and oxidative stress. Altered exercise and metabolic profiles were also observed in the MLC group. The contribution of obesity on the physiopathology of exercise limitation after a critical bout of COVID-19 did not seem relevant.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312759

ABSTRACT

Background: Proteinuria has been commonly reported in patients with COVID-19, suggesting a renal involvement in this infection. However, only dipstick tests have been used thus far. Here, the quantification and characterization of proteinuria and hematuria are investigated. Their potential association with mortality was assessed. Methods: This retrospective, observational and monocentric study includes 153 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 28 th and April 30 th 2020, in whom total proteinuria and urine α 1 -microglobulin (a marker of tubular injury) have been measured. Association with mortality was evaluated with a follow-up until May 7 th 2020. Results: According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging, 14% (n=21) had stage 1 proteinuria (<150 mg/g of urine creatinine), 42% (n=64) had stage 2 (between 150 and 500 mg/g) and 44% (n=68) had stage 3 (over 500 mg/g). Urine α 1 -microglobulin concentration was higher than 10 or 15 mg/g in 94% and 89% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 27 [14;30] days, the mortality rate reached 18%. Total proteinuria and urine α 1 -microglobulin (as continuous and/or categorical variables) were associated with mortality in unadjusted and adjusted models. This association was even stronger in subgroups of patients with normal renal function or without urinary catheter. Conclusions: : Proteinuria is frequent in patients with COVID-19. Its characterization suggests a tubular origin with increased urine α 1 -microglobulin. Tubular proteinuria seems associated with mortality in COVID-19.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0037421, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486479

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the quantitative DiaSorin Liaison severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen test in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals consulting their general practitioners (GPs) during a period of stable intense virus circulation (213/100,000 habitants per day). Leftover reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) positive (n = 204) and negative (n = 210) nasopharyngeal samples were randomly selected among fresh routine samples collected from patients consulting their GPs. Samples were tested on Liaison XL according to the manufacturer's instructions. Equivocal results were considered negative. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Liaison antigen test compared to RT-PCR were 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.9% to 71.9%) and 100% (CI, 97.8% to 100%). Sensitivity in samples with viral loads of ≥105, ≥104, and ≥103 copies/ml were 100% (CI, 96.3% to 100.0%), 96.5% (CI, 91.8% to 98.7%), and 87.4% (CI, 81.3% to 91.5%), respectively. All samples with ≤103 copies/ml were antigen negative. The ratio of antigen concentration to viral load in samples with ≥103 copies/ml was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals (P = 0.58). The proportion of RT-PCR-positive participants with a high viral load (≥105 copies/ml) was not significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic participants (63.9% [CI, 54.9% to 72.0%] versus 51.9% [CI, 41.1% to 62.6%]; P = 0.11), but the proportion of participants with a low viral load (<103 copies/ml) was significantly higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic RT-PCR-positive participants (35.4% [CI, 25.8% to 46.4%] versus 14.3% [CI, 9.0% to 21.8%]; P < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity in samples with a viral load of ≥104 copies/ml were 96.5% and 100%. The correlation of antigen concentration with viral load was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Outpatients , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 118, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) required critical care. Mid-term outcomes of the survivors need to be assessed. The objective of this single-center cohort study was to describe their physical, cognitive, psychological, and biological outcomes at 3 months following intensive care unit (ICU)-discharge (M3). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All COVID-19 adults who survived an ICU stay ≥ 7 days and attended the M3 consultation at our multidisciplinary follow-up clinic were involved. They benefited from a standardized assessment, addressing health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), sleep disorders (PSQI), and the three principal components of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS): physical status (Barthel index, handgrip and quadriceps strength), mental health disorders (HADS and IES-R), and cognitive impairment (MoCA). Biological parameters referred to C-reactive protein and creatinine. RESULTS: Among the 92 patients admitted to our ICU for COVID-19, 42 survived a prolonged ICU stay and 32 (80%) attended the M3 follow-up visit. Their median age was 62 [49-68] years, 72% were male, and nearly half received inpatient rehabilitation following ICU discharge. At M3, 87.5% (28/32) had not regained their baseline level of daily activities. Only 6.2% (2/32) fully recovered, and had normal scores for the three MoCA, IES-R and Barthel scores. The main observed disorders were PSQI > 5 (75%, 24/32), MoCA < 26 (44%, 14/32), Barthel < 100 (31%, 10/32) and IES-R ≥ 33 (28%, 9/32). Combined disorders were observed in 13/32 (40.6%) of the patients. The EQ-5D-3L visual scale was rated at 71 [61-80]. A quarter of patients (8/32) demonstrated a persistent inflammation based on CRP blood level (9.3 [6.8-17.7] mg/L). CONCLUSION: The burden of severe COVID-19 and prolonged ICU stay was considerable in the present cohort after 3 months, affecting both functional status and biological parameters. These data are an argument on the need for closed follow-up for critically ill COVID-19 survivors.

8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0037421, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276886

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the quantitative DiaSorin Liaison severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen test in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals consulting their general practitioners (GPs) during a period of stable intense virus circulation (213/100,000 habitants per day). Leftover reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) positive (n = 204) and negative (n = 210) nasopharyngeal samples were randomly selected among fresh routine samples collected from patients consulting their GPs. Samples were tested on Liaison XL according to the manufacturer's instructions. Equivocal results were considered negative. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Liaison antigen test compared to RT-PCR were 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.9% to 71.9%) and 100% (CI, 97.8% to 100%). Sensitivity in samples with viral loads of ≥105, ≥104, and ≥103 copies/ml were 100% (CI, 96.3% to 100.0%), 96.5% (CI, 91.8% to 98.7%), and 87.4% (CI, 81.3% to 91.5%), respectively. All samples with ≤103 copies/ml were antigen negative. The ratio of antigen concentration to viral load in samples with ≥103 copies/ml was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals (P = 0.58). The proportion of RT-PCR-positive participants with a high viral load (≥105 copies/ml) was not significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic participants (63.9% [CI, 54.9% to 72.0%] versus 51.9% [CI, 41.1% to 62.6%]; P = 0.11), but the proportion of participants with a low viral load (<103 copies/ml) was significantly higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic RT-PCR-positive participants (35.4% [CI, 25.8% to 46.4%] versus 14.3% [CI, 9.0% to 21.8%]; P < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity in samples with a viral load of ≥104 copies/ml were 96.5% and 100%. The correlation of antigen concentration with viral load was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Outpatients , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0037421, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183283

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the quantitative DiaSorin Liaison severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen test in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals consulting their general practitioners (GPs) during a period of stable intense virus circulation (213/100,000 habitants per day). Leftover reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) positive (n = 204) and negative (n = 210) nasopharyngeal samples were randomly selected among fresh routine samples collected from patients consulting their GPs. Samples were tested on Liaison XL according to the manufacturer's instructions. Equivocal results were considered negative. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Liaison antigen test compared to RT-PCR were 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.9% to 71.9%) and 100% (CI, 97.8% to 100%). Sensitivity in samples with viral loads of ≥105, ≥104, and ≥103 copies/ml were 100% (CI, 96.3% to 100.0%), 96.5% (CI, 91.8% to 98.7%), and 87.4% (CI, 81.3% to 91.5%), respectively. All samples with ≤103 copies/ml were antigen negative. The ratio of antigen concentration to viral load in samples with ≥103 copies/ml was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals (P = 0.58). The proportion of RT-PCR-positive participants with a high viral load (≥105 copies/ml) was not significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic participants (63.9% [CI, 54.9% to 72.0%] versus 51.9% [CI, 41.1% to 62.6%]; P = 0.11), but the proportion of participants with a low viral load (<103 copies/ml) was significantly higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic RT-PCR-positive participants (35.4% [CI, 25.8% to 46.4%] versus 14.3% [CI, 9.0% to 21.8%]; P < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity in samples with a viral load of ≥104 copies/ml were 96.5% and 100%. The correlation of antigen concentration with viral load was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Outpatients , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
11.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 600881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170100

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly with cases spanning from asymptomatic to lethal with a subset of individuals developing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and death from respiratory failure. To determine whether global nucleosome and citrullinated nucleosome levels were elevated in COVID-19 patients, we tested two independent cohorts of COVID-19 positive patients with quantitative nucleosome immunoassays and found that nucleosomes were highly elevated in plasma of COVID-19 patients with a severe course of the disease relative to healthy controls and that both histone 3.1 variant and citrullinated nucleosomes increase with disease severity. Elevated citrullination of circulating nucleosomes is indicative of neutrophil extracellular trap formation, neutrophil activation and NETosis in severely affected individuals. Importantly, using hospital setting (outpatient, inpatient or ICU) as a proxy for disease severity, nucleosome levels increased with disease severity and may serve as a guiding biomarker for treatment. Owing to the limited availability of mechanical ventilators and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) equipment, there is an urgent need for effective tools to rapidly assess disease severity and guide treatment selection. Based on our studies of two independent cohorts of COVID-19 patients from Belgium and Germany, we suggest further investigation of circulating nucleosomes and citrullination as biomarkers for clinical triage, treatment allocation and clinical drug discovery.

13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A key role of oxidative stress has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, little has been said about oxidative stress status (OSS) of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Biomarkers of the systemic OSS included antioxidants (9 assays), trace elements (3 assays), inflammation markers (4 assays) and oxidative damage to lipids (3 assays). RESULTS: Blood samples were drawn after 9 (7-11) and 41 (39-43) days of ICU stay, respectively in 3 and 6 patients. Vitamin C, thiol proteins, reduced glutathione, γ-tocopherol, ß-carotene and PAOT® score were significantly decreased compared to laboratory reference values. Selenium concentration was at the limit of the lower reference value. By contrast, the copper/zinc ratio (as a source of oxidative stress) was higher than reference values in 55% of patients while copper was significantly correlated with lipid peroxides (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). Inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and myeloperoxidase) were significantly increased when compared to normals. CONCLUSIONS: The systemic OSS was strongly altered in critically ill COVID-19 patients as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation but also by deficits in some antioxidants (vitamin C, glutathione, thiol proteins) and trace elements (selenium).

14.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 355-364, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria has been commonly reported in patients with COVID-19. However, only dipstick tests have been frequently used thus far. Here, the quantification and characterization of proteinuria were investigated and their association with mortality was assessed. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, single center study included 153 patients, hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 28th and April 30th, 2020, in whom total proteinuria and urinary α1-microglobulin (a marker of tubular injury) were measured. Association with mortality was evaluated, with a follow-up until May 7th, 2020. RESULTS: According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging, 14% (n = 21) of the patients had category 1 proteinuria (< 150 mg/g of urine creatinine), 42% (n = 64) had category 2 (between 150 and 500 mg/g) and 44% (n = 68) had category 3 proteinuria (over 500 mg/g). Urine α1-microglobulin concentration was higher than 15 mg/g in 89% of patients. After a median follow-up of 27 [14;30] days, the mortality rate reached 18%. Total proteinuria and urinary α1-microglobulin were associated with mortality in unadjusted and adjusted models. This association was stronger in subgroups of patients with normal renal function and without a urinary catheter. CONCLUSIONS: Proteinuria is frequent in patients with COVID-19. Its characterization suggests a tubular origin, with increased urinary α1-microglobulin. Tubular proteinuria was associated with mortality in COVID-19 in our restropective, observational study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium/epidemiology , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/urine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Proteinuria/etiology , Proteinuria/urine , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
15.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 10 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836031

ABSTRACT

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Services , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Travel Medicine/organization & administration , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Clinical Laboratory Services/statistics & numerical data , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Islands/epidemiology , Language , Laos/epidemiology , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Medical Laboratory Personnel/organization & administration , Medical Laboratory Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survival Analysis , Travel Medicine/methods , Travel Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness , Tropical Climate , Tropical Medicine/methods , Tropical Medicine/organization & administration , Tropical Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Vietnam/epidemiology
16.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759875

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is causing a deadly and pandemic disease called coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). While SARS-CoV-2-triggered hyperinflammatory tissue-damaging and immunothrombotic responses are thought to be major causes of respiratory failure and death, how they relate to lung immunopathological changes remains unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can contribute to inflammation-associated lung damage, thrombosis, and fibrosis. However, whether NETs infiltrate particular compartments in severe COVID-19 lungs remains to be clarified. Here we analyzed postmortem lung specimens from four patients who succumbed to COVID-19 and four patients who died from a COVID-19-unrelated cause. We report the presence of NETs in the lungs of each COVID-19 patient. NETs were found in the airway compartment and neutrophil-rich inflammatory areas of the interstitium, while NET-prone primed neutrophils were present in arteriolar microthrombi. Our results support the hypothesis that NETs may represent drivers of severe pulmonary complications of COVID-19 and suggest that NET-targeting approaches could be considered for the treatment of uncontrolled tissue-damaging and thrombotic responses in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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