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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311148

ABSTRACT

Early recognition of risk and start of treatment may improve unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. In the SAVE-MORE double-blind randomized trial, 594 patients with pneumonia without respiratory dysfunction at risk as defined by plasma suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) ≥ 6 ng/ml were 1:2 randomized to subcutaneous placebo or 100 mg anakinra once daily for 10 days;85.9% were co-administered dexamethasone. After 28 days, anakinra-treated patients were distributed to lower strata of the 11-point World Health Organization ordinal Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) (adjusted odds ratio-OR 0.36;95%CI 0.26–0.50;P < 0.001);anakinra protected from severe disease or death (≥ 6 points of WHO-CPS) (OR: 0.46;P: 0.010). The median WHO-CPS decrease in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points (OR 0.40;P < 0.0001);the median decrease of SOFA score was 0 and 1 points (OR 0.63;P: 0.004). 28-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio: 0.45;P: 0.045) and hospital stay was shorter. (Sponsored by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04680949)

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1353-1354, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488021
3.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e690-e697, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anakinra might improve the prognosis of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (ie, patients requiring oxygen supplementation but not yet receiving organ support). We aimed to assess the effect of anakinra treatment on mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: For this systematic review and individual patient-level meta-analysis, a systematic literature search was done on Dec 28, 2020, in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases for randomised trials, comparative studies, and observational studies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, comparing administration of anakinra with standard of care, or placebo, or both. The search was repeated on Jan 22, 2021. Individual patient-level data were requested from investigators and corresponding authors of eligible studies; if individual patient-level data were not available, published data were extracted from the original reports. The primary endpoint was mortality after 28 days and the secondary endpoint was safety (eg, the risk of secondary infections). This study is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221491). FINDINGS: 209 articles were identified, of which 178 full-text articles fulfilled screening criteria and were assessed. Aggregate data on 1185 patients from nine studies were analysed, and individual patient-level data on 895 patients were provided from six of these studies. Eight studies were observational and one was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies used historical controls. In the individual patient-level meta-analysis, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, baseline ratio of the arterial partial oxygen pressure divided by the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and lymphopenia, mortality was significantly lower in patients treated with anakinra (38 [11%] of 342) than in those receiving standard of care with or without placebo (137 [25%] of 553; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·20-0·51]). The mortality benefit was similar across subgroups regardless of comorbidities (ie, diabetes), ferritin concentrations, or the baseline PaO2/FiO2. In a subgroup analysis, anakinra was more effective in lowering mortality in patients with CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L (OR 0·28 [95% CI 0·17-0·47]). Anakinra showed a significant survival benefit when given without dexamethasone (OR 0·23 [95% CI 0·12-0·43]), but not with dexamethasone co-administration (0·72 [95% CI 0·37-1·41]). Anakinra was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary infections when compared with standard of care (OR 1·35 [95% CI 0·59-3·10]). INTERPRETATION: Anakinra could be a safe, anti-inflammatory treatment option to reduce the mortality risk in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the presence of signs of hyperinflammation such as CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L. FUNDING: Sobi.

4.
J Artif Organs ; 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469701

ABSTRACT

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support in donors may contribute in preserving proper haemodynamics and systemic perfusion during organ retrieval thus decreasing the risk of multiple organ injury. This is an option to expand the current organ supply. We report on intra-abdominal organs procurement strategy in a selected LVAD recipient who suffered a fatal cerebrovascular accident at the time of COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. The liver and kidneys grafts have been successfully transplanted.

6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(11): e743-e744, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447255
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392888

ABSTRACT

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Up-Regulation , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Databases, Genetic , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Models, Biological , Models, Theoretical , Sex Characteristics
8.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1752-1760, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392877

ABSTRACT

Early increase of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels is indicative of increased risk of progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to respiratory failure. The SAVE-MORE double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anakinra, an IL-1α/ß inhibitor, in 594 patients with COVID-19 at risk of progressing to respiratory failure as identified by plasma suPAR ≥6 ng ml-1, 85.9% (n = 510) of whom were receiving dexamethasone. At day 28, the adjusted proportional odds of having a worse clinical status (assessed by the 11-point World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS)) with anakinra, as compared to placebo, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.50). The median WHO-CPS decrease on day 28 from baseline in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points, respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, P < 0.0001); the respective median decrease of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 7 from baseline was 0 and 1 points (OR = 0.63, P = 0.004). Twenty-eight-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio = 0.45, P = 0.045), and hospital stay was shorter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Andrology ; 10(1): 34-41, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypogonadism/epidemiology , Hypogonadism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(8): 891-902, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines. We present the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with immunosuppressive drugs, either tocilizumab or anakinra compared with controls. METHODS: A single-center observational prospective study on ICU invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was the clinical improvement at day 28. A Bayesian framework was employed, and all analyses were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Sixty-one consecutive invasively ventilated patients were included, nine (14.7%) received tocilizumab and 15 (24.6%) received anakinra. Over the first seven days, tocilizumab was associated with a greater decrease in C-reactive protein (P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, the probability of clinical improvement at day 28 compared to control was 7∙6% (OR=0.36 [95% CrI: 0.09-1.46]) for tocilizumab and 40.9% (OR=0.89 [95% CrI: 0.32-2.43]) for anakinra. At day 28, the probability of being in a better clinical category was 2.5% (OR=2.98 [95% CrI: 1.00-8.88]) for tocilizumab, and 49.5% (OR=1.00 [95% CrI: 0.42-2.42]) for anakinra. CONCLUSIONS: In invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, treatment with anakinra was associated with a higher probability of clinical improvement compared to tocilizumab; however, treatment with either drug did not result in clinically meaningful improvements compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restraining maladaptive inflammation is considered a rationale strategy to treat severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) but available studies with selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines have not provided unequivocal evidence of survival advantage. Late administration is commonly regarded as a major cause of treatment failure but the optimal timing for anti-cytokine therapy initiation in COVID-19 patients has never been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: To identify a window of therapeutic opportunity for maximizing the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19. METHODS: Survival at the longest available follow-up was assessed in severe hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, or standard of care, stratified according to respiratory impairment at the time of treatment initiation. RESULTS: 107 patients treated with biologics and 103 contemporary patients treated with standard of care were studied. After a median of 106 days of follow-up (range 3-186), treatment with biologics was associated with a significantly higher survival rate compared to standard therapy when initiated in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). Anakinra reduced mortality also in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: IL-1 and IL-6 blocking therapies are more likely to provide survival advantage in hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients when initiated before the establishment of severe respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
12.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(4): e253-e261, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 develop a life-threatening hyperinflammatory response to the virus. Interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 inhibitors have been used to treat this patient population, but the comparative effectiveness of these different strategies remains undetermined. We aimed to compare IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. METHODS: This cohort study included patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, defined as a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and hyperinflammation, defined as serum C-reactive protein concentration of 100 mg/L or more or ferritin concentration of 900 ng/mL or more. The primary endpoint was survival, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation (adverse clinical outcome). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving IL-1 inhibition (anakinra) or IL-6 inhibition (tocilizumab or sarilumab) with those of patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, after accounting for baseline differences. All patients received standard care. Interaction tests were used to assess the probability of survival according to C-reactive protein or lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. FINDINGS: Of 392 patients included between Feb 25 and May 20, 2020, 275 did not receive interleukin inhibitors, 62 received the IL-1 inhibitor anakinra, and 55 received an IL-6 inhibitor (29 received tocilizumab and 26 received sarilumab). In the multivariable analysis, compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, patients treated with IL-1 inhibition had a significantly reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0·450, 95% CI 0·204-0·990, p=0·047), but those treated with IL-6 inhibition did not (0·900, 0·412-1·966; p=0·79). In the multivariable analysis, there was no difference in adverse clinical outcome risk in patients treated with IL-1 inhibition (HR 0·866, 95% CI 0·482-1·553; p=0·63) or IL-6 inhibition (0·882, 0·452-1·722; p=0·71) relative to patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For increasing C-reactive protein concentrations, patients treated with IL-6 inhibition had a significantly reduced risk of mortality (HR 0·990, 95% CI 0·981-0·999; p=0·031) and adverse clinical outcome (0·987, 0·979-0·995; p=0·0021) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For decreasing concentrations of serum lactate dehydrogenase, patients treated with an IL-1 inhibitor and patients treated with IL-6 inhibitors had a reduced risk of mortality; increasing concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in patients receiving either interleukin inhibitor were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR 1·009, 95% CI 1·003-1·014, p=0·0011 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·006, 1·001-1·011, p=0·028 for IL-6 inhibitors) and adverse clinical outcome (1·006, 1·002-1·010, p=0·0031 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·005, 1·001-1·010, p=0·016 for IL-6 inhibitors) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: IL-1 inhibition, but not IL-6 inhibition, was associated with a significant reduction of mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. IL-6 inhibition was effective in a subgroup of patients with markedly high C-reactive protein concentrations, whereas both IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition were effective in patients with low lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. FUNDING: None.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis lacks systematic characterization in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with newly diagnosed myocarditis in the context of COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic and treatment strategies were driven by a dedicated multidisciplinary disease unit for myocarditis. Multimodal outcomes were assessed during prospective follow-up. RESULTS: Seven consecutive patients (57% males, age 51 ± 9 y) with acute COVID-19 infection received a de novo diagnosis of myocarditis. Endomyocardial biopsy was of choice in hemodynamically unstable patients (n = 4, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 25 ± 9%), whereas cardiac magnetic resonance constituted the first exam in stable patients (n = 3, mean LVEF 48 ± 10%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed an intra-myocardial SARS-CoV-2 genome in one of the six cases undergoing biopsy: in the remaining patients, myocarditis was either due to other viruses (n = 2) or virus-negative (n = 3). Hemodynamic support was needed for four unstable patients (57%), whereas a cardiac device implant was chosen in two of four cases showing ventricular arrhythmias. Medical treatment included immunosuppression (43%) and biological therapy (29%). By the 6-month median follow-up, no patient died or experienced malignant arrhythmias. However, two cases (29%) were screened for heart transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis associated with acute COVID-19 infection is a spectrum of clinical manifestations and underlying etiologies. A multidisciplinary approach is the cornerstone for tailored management.

16.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(3): 102763, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099046

ABSTRACT

The interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-1α is a ubiquitous and pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokine. The IL-1α precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cell types in health, but is released upon necrotic cell death as a bioactive mediator. IL-1α is also expressed by infiltrating myeloid cells within injured tissues. The cytokine binds the IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1), as does IL-1ß, and induces the same pro-inflammatory effects. Being a bioactive precursor released upon tissue damage and necrotic cell death, IL-1α is central to the pathogenesis of numerous conditions characterized by organ or tissue inflammation. These include conditions affecting the lung and respiratory tract, dermatoses and inflammatory skin disorders, systemic sclerosis, myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, inflammatory thrombosis, as well as complex multifactorial conditions such as COVID-19, vasculitis and Kawasaki disease, Behcet's syndrome, Sjogren Syndrome, and cancer. This review illustrates the clinical relevance of IL-1α to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, as well as the rationale for the targeted inhibition of this cytokine for treatment of these conditions. Three biologics are available to reduce the activities of IL-1α; the monoclonal antibody bermekimab, the IL-1 soluble receptor rilonacept, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. These advances in mechanistic understanding and therapeutic management make it incumbent on physicians to be aware of IL-1α and of the opportunity for therapeutic inhibition of this cytokine in a broad spectrum of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-1alpha , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Receptors, Interleukin-1 , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Intern Med ; 86: 34-40, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 cases have a detrimental hyper-inflammatory host response and different cytokine-blocking biologic agents were explored to improve outcomes. Anakinra blocks the activity of both IL-1α and IL­1ß and is approved for different autoinflammatory disorders, but it is used off-label for conditions characterized by an excess of cytokine production. Several studies on anakinra in COVID-19 patients reported positive effects. We performed a meta-analysis of all published evidence on the use of anakinra in COVID19 to investigate its effect on survival and need for mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We searched for any study performed on adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection, receiving anakinra versus any comparator. Primary endpoint was mortality at the longest available follow-up. Adverse effects, need for mechanical ventilation and discharge at home with no limitations were also analysed. RESULTS: Four observational studies involving 184 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with anakinra was significantly lower than mortality in the control group (95% CI 0.14-0.48, p<0.0001). Moreover, patients treated with anakinra had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation than controls (95% CI 0.250.74, p=0.002). No difference in adverse events and discharge at home with no limitations was observed. The Trial Sequential Analysis z-cumulative line reached the monitoring boundary for benefit and the required sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of anakinra in COVID-19 patients was safe and might be associated with reductions in both mortality and need for mechanical ventilation. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(3): 223-224, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046081
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