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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 12(1):9, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166624

ABSTRACT

Acute hepatitis has always been a public health concern, but the recent clustering of cases in various parts of the world has drawn some special attention. The sudden rise in cases has mainly been among the pediatric population of around 35 countries around the world, including developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and European countries. The outbreaks have had a devastating impact, with around 10% of the affected patients developing liver failure. The clinical presentation of patients resembles any other case of acute hepatitis, with the major symptoms being: jaundice (68.8%), vomiting (57.6%), and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain (36.1%) and nausea (25.7%). Interestingly, the cases have tested negative for hepatotropic viruses Hep A, B, C, and E, thus giving rise to the terms Hepatitis of Unknown Origin or non-HepA-E hepatitis. Many causes have been attributed to the disease, with major evidence seen for adenovirus and SARS-CoV-2. International agencies have stressed on establishing diagnostic and management protocols to limit these outbreaks. As the understanding has evolved over time, diagnostic and management faculties have found more shape. The current review was designed to comprehensively compile all existing data and whittle it down to evidence-based conclusions to help clinicians.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 876017, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071101

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation together with alteration of plasma proteins, erythrocyte deformability, and platelet activation, may affect blood viscosity. Thus, this review aimed to study the link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and alteration of blood viscosity in COVID-19 patients. In order to review findings related to hyperviscosity in COVID-19, we suggested a protocol for narrative review of related published COVID-19 articles. Hyperviscosity syndrome is developed in different hematological disorders including multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, Waldenstorm macroglobulinemia, polycythemia, and leukemia. In COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 may affect erythrocyte morphology via binding of membrane cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) receptors, and B and 3 proteins on the erythrocyte membrane. Variations in erythrocyte fragility and deformability with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause hyperviscosity syndrome in COVID-19. Of interest, hyperviscosity syndrome in COVID-19 may cause poor tissue perfusion, peripheral vascular resistance, and thrombosis. Most of the COVID-19 patients with a blood viscosity more than 3.5 cp may develop coagulation disorders. Of interest, hyperviscosity syndrome is more commonly developed in vaccine recipients who had formerly received the COVID-19 vaccine due to higher underlying immunoglobulin concentrations, and only infrequently in those who have not received the COVID-19 vaccine. Taken together, these observations are untimely too early to give a final connotation between COVID-19 vaccination and the risk for development of hyperviscosity syndrome, consequently prospective and retrospective studies are necessary in this regard.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918490

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation together with alteration of plasma proteins, erythrocyte deformability, and platelet activation, may affect blood viscosity. Thus, this review aimed to study the link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and alteration of blood viscosity in COVID-19 patients. In order to review findings related to hyperviscosity in COVID-19, we suggested a protocol for narrative review of related published COVID-19 articles. Hyperviscosity syndrome is developed in different hematological disorders including multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, Waldenstorm macroglobulinemia, polycythemia, and leukemia. In COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 may affect erythrocyte morphology via binding of membrane cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) receptors, and B and 3 proteins on the erythrocyte membrane. Variations in erythrocyte fragility and deformability with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause hyperviscosity syndrome in COVID-19. Of interest, hyperviscosity syndrome in COVID-19 may cause poor tissue perfusion, peripheral vascular resistance, and thrombosis. Most of the COVID-19 patients with a blood viscosity more than 3.5 cp may develop coagulation disorders. Of interest, hyperviscosity syndrome is more commonly developed in vaccine recipients who had formerly received the COVID-19 vaccine due to higher underlying immunoglobulin concentrations, and only infrequently in those who have not received the COVID-19 vaccine. Taken together, these observations are untimely too early to give a final connotation between COVID-19 vaccination and the risk for development of hyperviscosity syndrome, consequently prospective and retrospective studies are necessary in this regard.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820346

ABSTRACT

Since ancient times, plants have been used for their medicinal properties. They provide us with many phytomolecules, which serve a synergistic function for human well-being. Along with anti-microbial, plants also possess anti-viral activities. In Western nations, about 50% of medicines were extracted from plants or their constituents. The spread and pandemic of viral diseases are becoming a major threat to public health and a burden on the financial prosperity of communities worldwide. In recent years, SARS-CoV-2 has made a dramatic lifestyle change. This has promoted scientists not to use synthetic anti-virals, such as protease inhibitors, nucleic acid analogs, and other anti-virals, but to study less toxic anti-viral phytomolecules. An emerging approach includes searching for eco-friendly therapeutic molecules to develop phytopharmaceuticals. This article briefly discusses numerous bioactive molecules that possess anti-viral properties, their mode of action, and possible applications in treating viral diseases, with a special focus on coronavirus and various nano-formulations used as a carrier for the delivery of phytoconstituents for improved bioavailability.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512475

ABSTRACT

Monitoring human health for early detection of disease conditions or health disorders is of major clinical importance for maintaining a healthy life. Sensors are small devices employed for qualitative and quantitative determination of various analytes by monitoring their properties using a certain transduction method. A "real-time" biosensor includes a biological recognition receptor (such as an antibody, enzyme, nucleic acid or whole cell) and a transducer to convert the biological binding event to a detectable signal, which is read out indicating both the presence and concentration of the analyte molecule. A wide range of specific analytes with biomedical significance at ultralow concentration can be sensitively detected. In nano(bio)sensors, nanoparticles (NPs) are incorporated into the (bio)sensor design by attachment to the suitably modified platforms. For this purpose, metal nanoparticles have many advantageous properties making them useful in the transducer component of the (bio)sensors. Gold, silver and platinum NPs have been the most popular ones, each form of these metallic NPs exhibiting special surface and interface features, which significantly improve the biocompatibility and transduction of the (bio)sensor compared to the same process in the absence of these NPs. This comprehensive review is focused on the main types of NPs used for electrochemical (bio)sensors design, especially screen-printed electrodes, with their specific medical application due to their improved analytical performances and miniaturized form. Other advantages such as supporting real-time decision and rapid manipulation are pointed out. A special attention is paid to carbon-based nanomaterials (especially carbon nanotubes and graphene), used by themselves or decorated with metal nanoparticles, with excellent features such as high surface area, excellent conductivity, effective catalytic properties and biocompatibility, which confer to these hybrid nanocomposites a wide biomedical applicability.

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