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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307910

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV2 infection are frequently associated with cardiovascular manifestations, in particular with symptomatic acute coronary syndromes, cardiac arrhythmias and acute heart failure. However, the elevation of serum troponin seems to be non specific, and a cardiologic diagnostic workup should be performed. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristic and the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dyssynergy patterns in a cohort of hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patientsMethods Consecutive patients with an objective diagnosis of COVID-19, from February to April 2020. Baseline characteristics and comorbidities was collected. In case of increased troponin levels or symptoms suggestive for a concomitant cardiac syndrome, patients undergo to serial electrocardiograms, serial Troponin tests and bedside transthoracic echocardiogram.Results 402 consecutive patients were enrolled: 55 patients underwent an echocardiographic exam because of an increase in troponin levels or a suspected myocardial injury. Segmental left ventricular abnormalities were found in 10 (median WMSI 2.03 IQR 1.38-2.75) with a median LV ejection fraction was 30.1 % IQR, median troponin level was 3083 ng/L, median BNP was 761 ng/L. Death for any cause occurred in 4 patients among patients with regional LV abnormalities and in 3 with normal regional function (p= 0,02).Discussion A single bedside transthoracic echocardiogram performed in non critically ill COVID-19 patients with suspected cardiac injury has the potential to better assist clinicians in their challenging decision process. As an isolated increase of troponin levels is common in COVID patients, a bed-side echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function should be routinely implemented during their early evaluation.

3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 772-778, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176387

ABSTRACT

It is still debated whether prophylactic doses of low-molecular- weight heparin (LMWH) are always effective in preventing Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and mortality in COVID-19. Furthermore, there is paucity of data for those patients not requiring ventilation. We explored mortality and the safety/efficacy profile of LMWH in a cohort of Italian patients with COVID-19 who did not undergo ventilation. From the initial cohort of 422 patients, 264 were enrolled. Most (n = 156, 87.7%) received standard LMWH prophylaxis during hospitalization, with no significant difference between medical wards and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Major or not major but clinically relevant hemorrhages were recorded in 13 (4.9%) patients: twelve in those taking prophylactic LMWH and one in a patient taking oral anticoagulants (p: n.s.). Thirty-nine patients (14.8%) with median age 75 years. were transfused. Hemoglobin (Hb) at admission was significantly lower in transfused patients and Hb at admission inversely correlated with the number of red blood cells units transfused (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality occurred in 76 (28.8%) patients, 46 (24.3%) of whom admitted to medical wards. Furthermore, Hb levels at admittance were significantly lower in fatalities (g/dl 12.3; IQR 2.4 vs. 13.3; IQR 2.8; Mann-Whitney U-test; p = 0.001). After the exclusion of patients treated by LMWH intermediate or therapeutic doses (n = 32), the logistic regression showed that prophylaxis significantly and independently reduced mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.85). Present data show that COVID-19 patients who do not require ventilation benefit from prophylactic doses of LMWH.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Transfusion/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021981

ABSTRACT

There is paucity of data on the transfusion need and its impact on the overall mortality in patients with COVID-19. We explored mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who required transfusions. Information on clinical variables and in-hospital mortality were obtained from medical records of 422 patients admitted to medical wards or the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In-hospital mortality occurred in 147 (34.8%) patients, 94 (63.9%) of whom were admitted to the ICU. The median fatalities age was 77 years (IQR 14). Overall, 100 patients (60 males) received transfusion during hospitalization. The overall mortality was significantly and independently associated with age, ICU admission, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), and the number of transfused Red Blood Cell (RBC) units. Specifically, CKD was associated with mortality in patients admitted to medical wards, whereas the number of transfused RBC units predicted mortality in those admitted to the ICU. Transfusion strongly interacted with the admission to ICU (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 2.5-40.0). In patients with COVID-19, age is one of the strongest risk factors in predicting mortality independently of the disease's severity. CKD confers a higher risk of mortality in patients admitted to medical wards. In those admitted to the ICU, the more RBC units are transfused, the more mortality increases.

5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(2): 419-427, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Patients at greatest risk of severe clinical conditions from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death are elderly and comorbid patients. Increased levels of cardiac troponins identify patients with poor outcome. The present study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of Italian inpatients, admitted to a medical COVID-19 Unit, and to investigate the relative role of cardiac injury on in-hospital mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed all consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred to our dedicated medical Unit between February 26th and March 31st 2020. Patients' clinical data including comorbidities, laboratory values, and outcomes were collected. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were investigated. A mediation analysis was performed to identify the potential mediators in the relationship between cardiac injury and mortality. A total of 109 COVID-19 inpatients (female 36%, median age 71 years) were included. During in-hospital stay, 20 patients (18%) died and, compared with survivors, these patients were older, had more comorbidities defined by Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 3(65% vs 24%, p = 0.001), and higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (Hs-cTnI), both at first evaluation and peak levels. A dose-response curve between Hs-cTnI and in-hospital mortality risk up to 200 ng/L was detected. Hs-cTnI, chronic kidney disease, and chronic coronary artery disease mediated most of the risk of in-hospital death, with Hs-cTnI mediating 25% of such effect. Smaller effects were observed for age, lactic dehydrogenase, and D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of elderly and comorbid COVID-19 patients, elevated Hs-cTnI levels were the most important and independent mediators of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospital Mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Injuries/mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Mediation Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2629-2635, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-660341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for a worldwide pandemic, with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The increasing evidence of an associated relevant prothrombotic coagulopathy has resulted in an increasing use of antithrombotic doses higher than usual in COVID-19 patients. Information on the benefit/risk ratio of this approach is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of relevant bleeding complications in association with the antithrombotic strategy and its relationship with the amount of drug. METHODS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted between February and April 2020 were included in a retrospective analysis. Major bleedings (MB) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB) were obtained from patient medical records and were adjudicated by an independent committee. RESULTS: Of the 324 patients who were recruited, 240 had been treated with prophylactic doses and 84 with higher doses of anticoagulants. The rate of the composite endpoint of MB or CRNMB was 6.9 per 100-person/months in patients who had been given prophylactic doses, and 26.4 per 100-person/months in those who had been prescribed higher doses (hazard ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.90-7.97). The corresponding rates for overall mortality were 12.2 and 20.1 per 100-person/months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of relevant bleeding events was high in patients treated with (sub)therapeutic doses of anticoagulants. In the latter group, overall mortality did not differ from that of patients treated with standard prophylactic doses and was even higher. Our result does not support a strategy of giving (sub)therapeutic doses of anticoagulants in non-critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 316: 280-284, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy is often prescribed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring is warranted because both medications cause corrected QT-interval (QTc) prolongation. Whether QTc duration significantly varies during the day, potentially requiring multiple ECGs, remains to be established. METHODS: We performed 12­lead ECGs and 12­lead 24-h Holter ECG monitoring in all patients aged <80 years admitted to our medical unit for COVID-19, in oral therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice daily) and azithromycin (500 mg, once daily) for at least 3 days. A group of healthy individuals matched for age and sex served as control. RESULTS: Out of 126 patients, 22 (median age 64, 82% men) met the inclusion criteria. ECG after therapy showed longer QTc-interval than before therapy (450 vs 426 ms, p = .02). Four patients had a QTc ≥ 480 ms: they showed higher values of aspartate aminotransferase (52 vs 30 U/L, p = .03) and alanine aminotransferase (108 vs 33 U/L, p < .01) compared with those with QTc < 480 ms. At 24-h Holter ECG monitoring, 1 COVID-19 patient and no control had ≥1 run of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (p = .4). No patients showed "R on T" premature ventricular beats. Analysis of 24-h QTc dynamics revealed that COVID-19 patients had higher QTc values than controls, with no significant hourly variability. CONCLUSION: Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prolongs QTc interval in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those with high levels of transaminases. Because QTc duration remains stable during the 24 h, multiple daily ECG are not recommendable.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/complications , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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