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J Endocrinol Invest ; 2020 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996502


CONTEXT: The COVID-19 outbreak in Italy is the major concern of Public Health in 2020: measures of containment were progressively expanded, limiting Outpatients' visit. OBJECTIVE: We have developed and applied an emergency plan, tailored for Outpatients with endocrine diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study from March to May 2020. SETTING: Referral University-Hospital center. PATIENTS: 1262 patients in 8 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: The emergency plan is based upon the endocrine triage, the stay-safe procedures and the tele-Endo. During endocrine triage every patient was contacted by phone to assess health status and define if the visit will be performed face-to-face (F2F) or by tele-Medicine (tele-Endo). In case of F2F, targeted stay-safe procedures have been adopted. Tele-Endo, performed by phone and email, is dedicated to COVID-19-infected patients, to elderly or frail people, or to those with a stable disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: To assess efficacy of the emergency plan to continue the follow-up of Outpatients. RESULTS: The number of visits cancelled after endocrine triage (9%) is lower than that cancelled independently by the patients (37%, p < 0.001); the latter reduced from 47 to 19% during the weeks of lockdown (p = 0.032). 86% of patients contacted by endocrine-triage received a clinical response (F2F and tele-Endo visits). F2F visit was offered especially to young patients; tele-Endo was applied to 63% of geriatric patients (p < 0.001), visits' outcome was similar between young and aged patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergency plan respects the WHO recommendations to limit viral spread and is useful to continue follow-up for outpatients with endocrine diseases.

J Endocrinol Invest ; 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734036


PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids (GCs), alone or associated to other drugs, were widely used in the management of patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, during the recent COVID-19 outbreak. This review summarizes the available data on HPA axis impairment in GC-treated SARS-CoV-2 patients, focusing on the risk of adrenal insufficiency and on potential drug interactions during concomitant treatments. METHODS: Literature on the impact of GCs therapy on HPA axis and on the consequences of coadministration of GCs and other drugs in SARS-CoV-2 patients has been reviewed. RESULTS: GC treatment can cause symptoms of hypercortisolism, especially in patients with individual hypersensibility, or hypoadrenalism after drug withdrawal, due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, with consequences in terms of increased morbidity and mortality risk. On the other hand, in SARS-CoV-2-infected patient's cortisol secretion could be insufficient also due to critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). In addition, in this clinical context, the co-administration of antiretroviral drugs and corticosteroids may trigger drug-drug interaction and enhance the exposure to the latter ones, metabolized through the CYP450 CYP3A pathway, severely impacting on HPA axis. CONCLUSION: Physicians involved in the management of patients affected by COVID-19 should be aware of the need of an appropriate GC dose tapering, and of potential interaction of GCs with antiviral therapy and drugs used to treat associated co-morbidities.