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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 70: 104494, 2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment with fingolimod for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduces the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether main lymphocyte subsets and demographic features correlated to the subsequent increase in anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies following the third dose of COVID-19 vaccination in fingolimod-treated MS patients. METHODS: This was a prospective single-center observational exploratory study including a subgroup of adult patients with MS (pwMS) in treatment with fingolimod who underwent COVID-19 vaccination. The association of anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody levels (reported as the Log10 of the difference between the post and pre third dose levels) with the total number and percentage of CD3+ T and CD19+ B was assessed by a linear regression model adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: We found that peripheral blood CD19+ B lymphocytes before the third dose of vaccination in pwMS treated with fingolimod predict the subsequent increase of anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: This work suggests that evaluating the percentage of CD19+ B cells may be important to identify patients at risk of not producing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, with possible reduced protection from COVID-19.

2.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585221142319, 2022 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514274

ABSTRACT

The central vein sign (CVS) has been proposed as a biomarker of multiple sclerosis (MS). In adult-onset MS (AOMS), 40%-threshold of CVS positive (+) lesions demonstrated high accuracy for MS diagnosis. However, CVS+ lesions' performance has not been characterized in paediatric-onset (POMS) yet. We compared the CVS contribution to MS diagnosis in 10 POMS and 12 disease-duration-matched AOMS patients. Three POMS patients did not meet the 40%-threshold, while all AOMS patients were correctly diagnosed as having MS. The high proportion of periventricular confluent lesions, excluded from the CVS assessment, seemed to impair CVS sensitivity in POMS diagnosis.

3.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assessing the risk of clinical and radiological reactivation during pregnancy and post partum in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab (NTZ) throughout pregnancy (LONG_EXP) compared with women interrupting treatment before (NO_EXP) and within >-30 days and ≤90 days from conception (SHORT_EXP), and describing newborns' outcomes. METHODS: Maternal clinical and radiological outcomes and obstetric and fetal outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared among groups (NO_EXP, SHORT_EXP, LONG_EXP). Predictors of clinical and radiological reactivation were investigated through univariable and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: 170 eligible pregnancies from 163 women referring to 29 Italian MS centres were included. Annualised relapse rate (ARR) was significantly lower in LONG_EXP (n=66, 0.02 (0.001-0.09)) compared with NO_EXP (n=31, 0.43 (0.21-0.75), p=0.002) and SHORT_EXP (n=73, 0.46 (0.30-0.66), p=0.0004) during pregnancy, and in LONG_EXP (0.12 (0.05-0.24)) compared with SHORT_EXP (0.30 (0.17-0.50), p=0.008) during post partum. Gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were less frequent in LONG_EXP (n=6/50, 2.00%) compared with NO_EXP (n=9/21, 42.86%) and SHORT_EXP after delivery (n=17/49, 34.69%, p=0.010).Delaying NTZ resumption after delivery significantly increased the risk of relapses (OR=1.29 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.57), p=0.009) and Gd+ lesions (OR=1.49 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.89, p=0.001). Newborns' weight, length, head circumference and gestational age did not differ among groups after adjusting for confounders. Anaemia was tracked in 4/69 LONG_EXP newborns. Congenital anomaly rate was within the expected range for the untreated MS population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in women with MS treated with NTZ before conception, continuation of NTZ throughout pregnancy and its early resumption after delivery mitigate the risk of clinical and radiological reactivation. This approach has no major impact on newborns' outcomes.

4.
EXCLI J ; 21: 906-920, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172074

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in higher risks of hospitalization or death in older patients and those with multiple comorbidities, including malignancies. Patients with cancer have greater risks of COVID-19 onset and worse prognosis. This excess is mainly explained by thrombotic complications. Indeed, an imbalance in the equilibrium between clot formation and bleeding, increased activation of coagulation, and endothelial dysfunction characterize both COVID-19 patients and those with cancer. With this review, we provide a summary of the pathological mechanisms of coagulation and thrombotic manifestations in these patients and discuss the possible therapeutic implications of these phenomena.

5.
J Clin Neurol ; 18(5): 601, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062780

ABSTRACT

This corrects the article on p. 334 in vol. 18, PMID: 35589321.

6.
Neurotherapeutics ; 19(5): 1535-1545, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036858

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic era, safety concerns have been raised regarding the risk of severe infection following administration of ocrelizumab (OCR), a B-cell-depleting therapy. We enrolled all relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients who received maintenance doses of OCR from January 2020 to June 2021. Data were extracted in December 2021. Standard interval dosing (SID) was defined as a regular maintenance interval of OCR infusion every 6 months, whereas extended interval dosing (EID) was defined as an OCR infusion delay of at least 4 weeks. Three infusions were considered in defining SID vs. EID (infusions A, B, and C). Infusion A was the last infusion before January 2020. The primary study outcome was a comparison of disease activity during the A-C interval, which was defined as either clinical (new relapses) or radiological (new lesions on T1-gadolinium or T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences). Second, we aimed to assess confirmed disability progression (CDP). A total cohort of 278 patients (174 on SID and 104 on EID) was enrolled. Patients who received OCR on EID had a longer disease duration and a higher rate of vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (p < 0.05). EID was associated with an increased risk of MRI activity during the A-C interval (OR 5.373, 95% CI 1.203-24.001, p = 0.028). Being on SID or EID did not influence CDP (V-Cramer 0.47, p = 0.342). EID seemed to be associated with a higher risk of MRI activity in our cohort. EID needs to be carefully considered for OCR-treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Sudden Infant Death , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pandemics , Gadolinium/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Recurrence , Cytidine Diphosphate/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2099171, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863064

ABSTRACT

Vaccines prevent infections in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Though recommendations regarding vaccinating patients with MS have been recently published, real-world data regarding vaccines' planning in patients receiving disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for MS are missing. Our aim was, therefore, to describe vaccination coverage rates, timing-proposal and safety in real-life vaccinating patients with MS undergoing DMDs before the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination campaign. Patients followed at our MS-center were referred to individualized immunization-programs customized to Italian recommendations, patients' risks, immunity to exanthematic diseases, ongoing DMDs, or therapy-start urgency. Disease-activity stated the need for an essential immunization-cycle, whose core was composed by four vaccines: meningococcal-B, pneumococcal conjugated, Haemophilus influenzae B, and meningococcal-ACWY vaccines. Vaccines were administered prior to the planned DMD-start when possible, inactivated-vaccines >2 weeks and live-vaccines >4 weeks before treatment-start. Patients received a 6-months clinical-/radiological-follow-up after immunization. One-hundred and ninety-five patients were vaccinated between April 2017 and January 2021. 124/195 (63.6%) started a vaccination-program before therapy-start/-switch and 108/124 (87.1%) effectively completed immunization before new therapy-start without any delay. The time needed for immunization-conclusion reached a median of 27 (confidence interval 22) days in 2020. No increase in clinical-/radiological-activity 3-/6-months after immunization was noted. In conclusion, our study confirmed feasibility and safety of a vaccination-protocol in patients with MS whose duration resulted in a median of 27 days.

8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 35: 103099, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Connectivity-based approaches incorporating the distribution and magnitude of the extended brain network aberrations caused by lesions may offer higher sensitivity for axonal damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than conventional lesion characteristics. Using individual brain disconnectome mapping, we tested the longitudinal associations between putative imaging-based brain network aberrations and levels of serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) as a neuroaxonal injury biomarker. METHODS: MS patients (n = 312, mean age 42.9 years, 71 % female) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 59, mean age 39.9 years, 78 % female) were prospectively enrolled at four European MS centres, and reassessed after two years (MS, n = 242; HC, n = 30). Post-processing of 3 Tesla (3 T) MRI data was performed at one centre using a harmonized pipeline, and disconnectome maps were calculated using BCBtoolkit based on individual lesion maps. Global disconnectivity (GD) was defined as the average disconnectome probability in each patient's white matter. Serum NfL concentrations were measured by single molecule array (Simoa). Robust linear mixed models (rLMM) with GD or T2-lesion volume (T2LV) as dependent variables, patient as a random factor, serum NfL, age, sex, timepoint for visit, diagnosis, treatment, and center as fixed factors were run. RESULTS: rLMM revealed significant associations between GD and serum NfL (t = 2.94, p = 0.003), age (t = 4.21, p = 2.5 × 10-5), and longitudinal changes in NfL (t = -2.29, p = 0.02), but not for sex (t = 0.63, p = 0.53) or treatments (t = 0.80-0.83, p = 0.41-0.42). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significant associations between dysconnectivity in cerebellar and brainstem regions and serum NfL (t = 7.03, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: In our prospective multi-site MS cohort, rLMMs demonstrated that the extent of global and regional brain disconnectivity is sensitive to a systemic biomarker of axonal damage, serum NfL, in patients with MS. These findings provide a neuroaxonal correlate of advanced disconnectome mapping and provide a platform for further investigations of the functional and potential clinical relevance of brain disconnectome mapping in patients with brain disorders.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , White Matter , Adult , Biomarkers , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Intermediate Filaments , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
10.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 6(1): 23, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis, the correlation between white matter lesion volumes (LV) and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is at best moderate, leading to the "clinico-radiological paradox", influenced by many factors, including the lack of information on the spatial localisation of each lesion on synthetic metrics such as LV. We used a probabilistic approach to provide the volume of WM tracts that may be disconnected by lesions and to evaluate its correlation with EDSS. METHODS: Forty-five patients (aged 37.4 ± 6.8 years, mean ± standard deviation; 30 females; 29 relapsing-remitting, 16 progressive) underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging. Both LV and the volume of the tracts crossing the lesioned regions (disconnectome volume, DV) were calculated using BCBtoolkit and correlated with EDSS. RESULTS: T1-weighted LV and DV significantly correlated with EDSS (p ≤ 0.006 r ≥ 0.413) as it was for T2-weighted LV and T2-weighted DV (p ≤ 0.004 r ≥ 0.430), but only T1-weighetd and T2-weighted DVs were EDSS significant predictors (p ≤ 0.001). The correlations of T1-weighted and T2-weighted LV with EDSS were significantly mediated by DV, while no effect of LV on the EDSS-DV correlation was observed. CONCLUSION: The volume of disconnected WM bundles mediates the LV-EDSS correlation, representing the lonely EDSS predictor.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , White Matter , Brain/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Recurrence , White Matter/pathology
11.
J Clin Neurol ; 18(3): 334-342, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To identify changes in the choroidal thickness (CT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without optic neuritis (ON) using enhanced-depth-imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 96 eyes with MS and 28 eyes of healthy controls. All participants underwent an ophthalmologic examination and EDI-OCT scanning (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) to assess the CT and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. MS patients were divided into two groups: 1) with and 2) without a history of ON. The CT was evaluated in the fovea and at six horizontal and six vertical points at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µm from the fovea. Paired t-tests were used to compare the groups, and p-value<0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: At all 13 measurements points, the CT was thicker in MS patients than in the healthy controls and was thinner in eyes with ON than in the contralateral eyes, but these differences were not statistically significant. However, the CT was always larger in all points in eyes with a history of ON than in the control eyes. The RNFL was significantly thinner (p<0.05) in both MS and ON eyes than in the control eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The CT did not differ between MS and control eyes, but it was significantly larger in patients with a history of ON, in whom the RNFL was thinner. Further studies are necessary to establish the possible role of the choroid in MS.

12.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(3)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the longitudinal dynamic of lymphocyte subsets during treatment with ocrelizumab (OCR) in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 161 PwMS starting treatment with OCR grouped in naive (naive, n = 40), switching from fingolimod (FTY, n = 52), and switching from other immunomodulating drugs (other, n = 69). Mean lymphocyte subset (total, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and natural killer) counts were analyzed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Rate of lymphocytopenia for each subset was calculated at all time points in all groups. RESULTS: Mean total, CD3+, and CD4+ counts were significantly different among groups (p < 0.001) at all time points, whereas CD8+ and CD20+ counts only at baseline (p = 0.0157; p < 0.001), consistently lower in FTY. After adjustment for baseline values, interaction time*group was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for each subset). The odds of lymphopenia were significantly higher among FTY patients compared with naive for total, CD3+, CD4+, and CD20+ cells at baseline, for total and CD4+ cells at the sixth month, and for total cells at the 12th month. DISCUSSION: OCR per se exerts a modest depleting effect on T cells that seems rather due to a carryover phenomenon of previous therapies, particularly FTY. These data may help in the overall evaluation of the risk/benefit profile of treatment sequencing.


Subject(s)
Lymphopenia , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Humans , Lymphopenia/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
Neurotherapeutics ; 18(4): 2579-2588, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553320

ABSTRACT

Data regarding effectiveness and safety of ocrelizumab in the post-marking setting are lacking. The aim of our study was to provide effectiveness and safety data of ocrelizumab treatment in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR-) and progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) and to evaluate clinical and immunological predictors of early treatment response. In this single-center prospective observational study, we investigated effectiveness outcomes (time-to-confirmed disability worsening, time-to-first relapse, time-to-first evidence of MRI activity and time-to-first evidence of disease activity), clinical and immunological predictors of early treatment response, and incidence of adverse events (AEs). One hundred and fifty-three subjects were included (93 RRMS; 84 females). Median follow-up was 1.9 (1.3-2.7). At 2-year follow-up (FU), disability worsening-free survival were 90.5%, 64.7%, and 68.8% for RRMS, primary-progressive MS (PPMS), and secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, respectively. At 2-year FU, 67.1%, 72.7%, and 81.3% of patients with RRMS, PPMS, and SPMS were free of MRI activity, with NEDA-3 percentages of 62.1%, 54.6%, and 55.1%, respectively. Lower baseline EDSS was independently associated with a reduced risk of disability worsening (HR(95%CI) = 1.45(1.05-2.00), p = 0.024) and previous treatment exposure was independently associated with increased probability of radiological activity (HR = 2.53(1.05-6.10), p = 0.039). At 6-month FU, CD8 + cell decrease was less pronounced in patients with inflammatory activity (p = 0.022). Six patients (3.9%) discontinued ocrelizumab due to severe AEs. Our findings suggest that ocrelizumab is an effective treatment in real-world patients with RRMS and PMS, with a manageable safety profile. Better outcomes were observed in treatment-naïve patients and in patients with a low baseline disability level. Depletion of CD8 + cells could underlie early therapeutic effects of ocrelizumab.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
14.
J Neurol ; 269(2): 796-804, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) after fingolimod withdrawal in a multicentre cohort. METHODS: Patients who discontinued fingolimod were included. Relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and new/gadolinium-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed during the last year on fingolimod, and in the year after discontinuation. Wilcoxon test was used to analyse the difference in EDSS and relapses between the two periods, and to compare lymphocyte counts at discontinuation and 3 months later. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients were 230 (females 66.1%; mean age 38 years; median EDSS 3). Fingolimod was discontinued due to inefficacy in 57%, and 87.4% started another treatment. Relapse was observed in 33% of the patients in the year after discontinuation. Severe reactivation was observed in 15%. During the first 6 months after discontinuation, new/enhancing lesions were seen in 62/116 patients. Higher age at the fingolimod discontinuation was found to be associated with a lower probability of inflammatory activity (p = 0.001) and severe reactivation (p = 0.007) during the year after discontinuation. Lower lymphocyte count was a risk factor for clinical, radiological, and severe activity (p = 0.02, p = 0.002, p = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The main reason for the discontinuation of fingolimod was inefficacy. One-third of the patients had a relapse during the year after discontinuation, 15% experienced a severe reactivation, and approximately 50% of patients with available MRI scan had new/enhancing lesions. The risk factors for disease activity after discontinuation were low lymphocyte count and younger age.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
15.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(6): 726-735, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938921

ABSTRACT

Importance: Availability of new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and changes of therapeutic paradigms have led to a general improvement of multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis in adults. It is still unclear whether this improvement also involves patients with pediatric-onset MS (POMS), whose early management is more challenging. Objective: To evaluate changes in the prognosis of POMS over time in association with changes in therapeutic and managing standards. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective, multicenter, observational study. Data were extracted and collected in May 2019 from the Italian MS Registry, a digital database including more than 59 000 patients. Inclusion criteria were MS onset before age 18 years, diagnosis before January 2014, and disease duration of at least 3 years. Exclusion criteria were primary progressive MS, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of at least 8 one year after onset, unavailability of diagnosis date, and less than 2 EDSS score evaluations. Eligible patients were 4704 patients with POMS. According to these criteria, we enrolled 3198 patients, excluding 1506. Exposures: We compared time to reach disability milestones by epoch of MS diagnosis (<1993, 1993-1999, 2000-2006, and 2007-2013), adjusting for possible confounders linked to EDSS evaluations and clinical disease activity. We then analyzed the difference among the 4 diagnosis epochs regarding demographic characteristics, clinical disease activity at onset, and DMTs management. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disability milestones were EDSS score 4.0 and 6.0, confirmed in the following clinical evaluation and in the last available visit. Results: We enrolled 3198 patients with POMS (mean age at onset, 15.2 years; 69% female; median time to diagnosis, 3.2 years; annualized relapse rate in first 1 and 3 years, 1.3 and 0.6, respectively), with a mean (SD) follow-up of 21.8 (11.7) years. Median survival times to reach EDSS score of 4.0 and 6.0 were 31.7 and 40.5 years. The cumulative risk of reaching disability milestones gradually decreased over time, both for EDSS score of 4.0 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.83 in 1993-1999; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38-0.60 in 2000-2006; and HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.59 in 2007-2013) and 6.0 (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.90; HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.33-0.60; and HR, 0.30; 0.20-0.46). In later diagnosis epochs, a greater number of patients with POMS were treated with DMTs, especially high-potency drugs, that were given earlier and for a longer period. Demographic characteristics and clinical disease activity at onset did not change significantly over time. Conclusions and Relevance: In POMS, the risk of persistent disability has been reduced by 50% to 70% in recent diagnosis epochs, probably owing to improvement in therapeutic and managing standards.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Disease Progression , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(2): 352-360, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899615

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in several psychological consequences. Past epidemiological experiences already showed the deep albeit heterogeneous psychological repercussions of pandemics. Nevertheless, little is known about COVID-19 outbreak and the possible strategies for boosting resilience in patients with chronic diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Therefore, we designed a study aiming to assess the changes in mental distress during COVID-19 outbreak in patients with MS and to identifyfactors contributing to resilience's development.We enrolled 106 patients (69 relapsing-remitting, 20 secondary-progressive, and 17 primary-progressive) whose neuropsychological assessment before the COVID-19 pandemic (1 January 2019-1 March 2020) was available. It consisted of Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and patient-reported MS Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ-P). All patients were re-tested during Italian lockdown through an online survey, comprehensive of sociodemographic information, HADS self-rating Scale, MSNQ-P Questionnaire and finally Connor-Davidson Resilience self-rating Scale (CD-RISC 25), in order to evaluate resilience.No significant changes in HADS and MSNQ-P scores were detected during COVID-19 pandemic in our population. Though, pre-existing lower HADS and MSNQ-P scores but not demographic, disease- and treatment-related elements were found significantly (p < 0.0001) and independently associated with a better resilience attitude.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809698

ABSTRACT

Physical disability impacts psychosocial wellbeing in people with multiple sclerosis. However, the role of physical activity in this context is still debated. By taking advantage of a previous survey, conducted online from 22 April to 7 May 2020, we performed a post-hoc analysis with the aim to assess the associations between disability, physical exercise, and mental health in multiple sclerosis. We retrieved the following data: (i) sociodemographic information, (ii) changes in lifestyle (including exercise), (iii) physical disability, as measured with the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale, and (iv) anxiety feelings and depressive symptoms assessed via the items included in the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders measurement system. Examination of the interaction plot showed that the effect of disability on depression, but not on anxious symptoms, was significant for all levels of physical exercise (low: b = 1.22, 95% C.I. 0.85, 1.58, p < 0.001; moderate: b = 0.95, 95% C.I. 0.66, 1.24, p < 0.001; and high: b = 0.68, 95% C.I. 0.24, 1.13, p = 0.003). Based on these data, we can conclude that disability significantly impacted depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, with physical activity playing a moderating role. Our results suggest that favoring exercise in multiple sclerosis (MS) would ameliorate psychological wellbeing regardless of the level of physical disability.

18.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(3): 329-334, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the predictive value of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived measures are lacking, especially in progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). Accordingly, we aimed at investigating whether a single OCT assessment can predict a disability risk in both relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and PMS. METHODS: One hundred one patients with RRMS and 79 patients with PMS underwent Spectral-Domain OCT, including intraretinal layer segmentation. All patients had at least 1 Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) measurement during the subsequent follow-up (FU). Differences in terms of OCT metrics and their association with FU disability were assessed by analysis of covariance and linear regression models, respectively. RESULTS: The median FU was 2 years (range 1-5.5 years). The baseline peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) were thinner in PMS compared with RRMS (P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively). In the RRMS population, multivariable models showed that the GCIPL significantly correlated with FU disability (0.04 increase in the EDSS for each 1-µm decrease in the baseline GCIPL, 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.08; P = 0.02). The baseline GCIPL was thinner in patients with RRMS with FU-EDSS >4 compared with those with FU-EDSS ≤4, and individuals in the highest baseline GCIPL tertile had a significantly lower FU-EDSS score than those in the middle and lowest tertile (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). These findings were not confirmed in analyses restricted to patients with PMS. CONCLUSIONS: Among OCT-derived metrics, GCIPL thickness had the strongest association with short-medium term disability in patients with RRMS. The predictive value of OCT metrics in the longer term will have to be further investigated, especially in PMS.


Subject(s)
Disability Evaluation , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/rehabilitation , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnosis , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 81: 139-143, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222903

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate density and morphology of corneal epithelial dendritic cells (DCs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: This was a single-center cross-sectional comparative study. All MS patients were clinically scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. Patients underwent ophthalmological examination and then cornea was analyzed by IVCM Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT 3) in combination with Rostock Cornea Module and CCD camera. Five sectors (central, nasal, temporal, inferior, superior and central area) were analyzed in both patient eyes, then for each sector one image was selected and analyzed by using the manual cell counting system offered with the software and ImageJ program. DCs density (cell/mm2) and DCs size (µm2) were considered for the analyses. Difference between the two groups and correlation between DCs, MS type, EDSS score, optic neuritis and ongoing therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 46 consecutive patients: 23 with MS (age 47.87 ± 7.22 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 21 healthy subjects (age 46.0 ± 12.6 years) from July 2017 to July 2018. MS patients showed a lower DCs density when compared with healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found a direct correlation (r:0.48, p < 0.05) between DCs density and ongoing disease-modifying therapy. CONCLUSION: IVCM was able to show a difference in corneal DCs density between MS patients and healthy subjects, providing an insight to the underlying changes of the clinical manifestations of MS. Further studies are needed to provide evidence of possible clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Cornea/pathology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Adult , Cell Count , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Confocal , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis
20.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3375-3383, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-related factors and dysfunctional coping might favor the development of mental distress induced by COVID-19 containment measures. Aim of this study was exploring the relationship between disability, coping strategies, daily life reorganization and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an Italian MS population during the COVID-19 lockdown, in order to identify potentially modifiable factors that could inform clinical management of mental distress in people with MS. METHODS: We explored the relationship between mental distress, disability and coping strategies in the Italian MS population under lockdown. Structural equation modeling was applied to information collected via web survey to identify modifiable factors that could account for mental distress. RESULTS: A total of 845 participants (497 with MS and 348 controls) were included in the study. The MS group had higher scores than the control group for depression (p = 0.005), but not for anxiety, emotional dyscontrol or sleep disturbances. The structural equation modeling explained 74% of the variance observed in depression score. Within the model, three latent factors were characterized from measured variables: motor disability and cognitive dysfunction contributed to disability (ß = 0.509 and ß = 0.836; p < 0.001); positive attitude and exercise contributed to active attitude (ß = 0.386 and ß = 0.297; p < 0.001); and avoidance, social support and watching television contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.301, ß = 0.243 and ß = 0.212; p < 0.001). With regard to the relationship between latent factors and their influence on depression, disability contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.855; p < 0.001), while both passive and active attitude significantly influenced depression (ß = 0.729 and ß = -0.456; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As a practical implication of our model, favoring exercise would enhance active attitude and its positive impact on mental well-being while, at the same time, reducing the negative impact of disability on depression, representing a valuable tool in facing COVID-19-related mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Motor Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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