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1.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(11-12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124132

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic has captured the attention of the global community since the end of 2019, deadly health pandemics are not new to Africa. Tuberculosis (TB), malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) count amongst other serious diseases that have had a catastrophic impact on the African continent. Effective responses to such pandemics require high-quality, comprehensive data sets that can inform policymaking and enhance healthcare decision-making. While data is driving the information economy in the 21st century, the scarcity in Africa of carefully curated, large epidemiologic data sources and analytical capacity to rapidly identify and understand emerging infectious diseases poses a major challenge to mounting a time-sensitive response to unfolding pandemics. Data access, sharing and transfer between countries are crucial to effectively managing current and future health pandemics. Data access and sharing, however, raises questions about personal privacy, the adequacy of governance mechanisms to regulate cross-border data flows, and ethical issues relating to the collection and use of personal data in the interests of public health. Sub-Saharan Africa's most research-intensive countries are characterised by diverse data management and privacy governance frameworks. Such regional variance can impede time-sensitive data sharing and highlights the need for urgent governance reforms to facilitate effective decision-making in response to rapidly evolving public health threats.Significance: We explore governance considerations that ought to apply to the collection, transfer, and use of data in public health emergencies. Specifically, we provide an overview of the prevailing data sharing governance landscape in selected African countries. In doing so, we identify limitations and gaps that impede effective data collation, sharing and analysis. This work could find utility amongst a range of stakeholders, including bioinformaticians, epidemiologists, artificial intelligence coders, and government decision-makers. While this work focuses primarily on an African context, the issues explored are of universal concern and therefore of relevance to a broader international audience.

2.
Respiratory Case Reports ; 11(2):107-111, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928815

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a new type of coronavirus infection with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic to severely symptomatic, and that mostly affects the respiratory tract. Although the respiratory tract is the primary area affected by the disease, neurological symptoms such as headache, dizziness and muscle ache have also been reported in some patients since the early stages of the pandemic. COVID-19 symptoms and complications can affect the peripheral and central nervous systems as well as the skeletal muscles, while epileptic seizure is a rare manifestation of COVID-19. We present here the case of a female patient admitted to hospital with epileptic seizure due to COVID-19 encephalopathy.

3.
South African Medical Journal ; 112(3):201-208, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1753912

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has imposed unprecedented stressors on South Africa (SA)'s healthcare system. Superimposed on the country's quadruple burden of disease, pandemic-related care further exposes existing inequities. Some of these inequities are specific to hospital-based inpatient services, such as the geographical maldistribution of hospital beds, lack of oxygen supplies and assisted ventilation, and scarcity of trained healthcare workers. Certain high-risk groups, such as individuals with cardiometabolic comorbidity, are likely to develop severe COVID-19 disease requiring hospitalisation with potential for a prolonged length of stay (LoS). It may be helpful for health authorities to identify those at risk for prolonged LoS to facilitate appropriate health systems planning. Objectives. To identify hospital admission laboratory parameters associated with a hospital stay >14 days in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods. A retrospective observational study design was used. Laboratory data were obtained from an SA private laboratory for 642 inpatients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, comprising 7 months of admission laboratory data from six private hospitals in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. Results. Of 642 hospital admissions for pneumonia, 497 were confirmed to have COVID-19 infection (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test positive). In the COVID-19-positive group, hospital LoS was prolonged in 35.4% of admissions. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association with the following risk factors for prolonged LoS: older age;male sex;high serum creatinine, sodium (Na), chloride, potassium and urea levels and low estimated glomerular filtration rate;raised white blood cell count, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and an elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR);and elevated levels of D-dimers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT). The strongest univariate associations (relative risk (RR) ≥2.0) with a hospital stay >14 days were high Na levels, NRL >18, high PCT levels and IL-6 >40 pg/mL. On multivariable analysis, the following factors remained significantly associated with prolonged LoS: older age (RR 1.015 per year of age;95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005 - 1.024);hypernatraemia (RR 1.80;95% CI 1.25 - 2.60);hyperkalaemia (RR 1.61;95% CI 1.18 - 2.20);and neutrophilia (RR 1.47;95% CI 1.15 - 1.88). Conclusions. COVID-19 pandemic preparedness requires hospital-based inpatient care to be prioritised in resource-limited settings, and availability of beds and prompt admissions are essential to ensure good clinical outcomes. In this study of COVID-19 patients admitted with pneumonia, multivariable analysis showed older age, hypernatraemia, hyperkalaemia and neutrophilia to be associated with LoS >14 days. This may assist with healthcare systems planning. © 2022 South African Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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