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Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci ; 11(2): 51-55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311415


BACKGROUND: The association between commonly monitored respiratory parameters, including compliance and oxygenation and clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, limiting prognostication and the delivery of targeted treatments. Our project aim was to identify if any such associations exist between clinical outcomes and respiratory parameters. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of confirmed COVID-19 positive patients admitted to a single dedicated intensive care unit at a university hospital from March 27 to April 26, 2020. We collected information on baseline clinical and demographic characteristics and initial respiratory parameters. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients met criteria for ARDS and were included in our study. Nine of the 22 (40.9%) patients with ARDS died during hospitalization. The initial static respiratory system compliance of survivors was 39 (interquartile range [IQR] 34, 55) and nonsurvivors was 27 (IQR 24, 33, P < 0.01). A lower respiratory system compliance was associated with an increased adjusted odd of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.45 P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In our cohort of 22 patients mechanically ventilated with ARDS from COVID-19, having lower respiratory system compliance after intubation was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality, consistent with ARDS from non-COVID etiologies.

Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 613-621, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239133


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to surge in the United States and globally. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of COVID-19-related critical illness, including trends in outcomes and care delivery. DESIGN: Single-health system, multihospital retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 5 hospitals within the University of Pennsylvania Health System. PATIENTS: Adults with COVID-19-related critical illness who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with acute respiratory failure or shock during the initial surge of the pandemic. MEASUREMENTS: The primary exposure for outcomes and care delivery trend analyses was longitudinal time during the pandemic. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were all-cause death at any time, receipt of mechanical ventilation (MV), and readmissions. RESULTS: Among 468 patients with COVID-19-related critical illness, 319 (68.2%) were treated with MV and 121 (25.9%) with vasopressors. Outcomes were notable for an all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality rate of 29.9%, a median ICU stay of 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 17 days), a median hospital stay of 13 days (IQR, 7 to 25 days), and an all-cause 30-day readmission rate (among nonhospice survivors) of 10.8%. Mortality decreased over time, from 43.5% (95% CI, 31.3% to 53.8%) to 19.2% (CI, 11.6% to 26.7%) between the first and last 15-day periods in the core adjusted model, whereas patient acuity and other factors did not change. LIMITATIONS: Single-health system study; use of, or highly dynamic trends in, other clinical interventions were not evaluated, nor were complications. CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19-related critical illness admitted to ICUs of a learning health system in the United States, mortality seemed to decrease over time despite stable patient characteristics. Further studies are necessary to confirm this result and to investigate causal mechanisms. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Shock/mortality , Shock/therapy , APACHE , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/virology , Survival Rate
Ann Surg ; 272(3): e181-e186, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066507


OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcomes of patients undergoing tracheostomy for COVID-19 and of healthcare workers performing these procedures. BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is often performed for prolonged endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients. However, in the context of COVID-19, tracheostomy placement pathways have been altered due to the poor prognosis of intubated patients and the risk of transmission to providers through this highly aerosolizing procedure. METHODS: A prospective single-system multi-center observational cohort study was performed on patients who underwent tracheostomy after acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 53 patients who underwent tracheostomy, the average time from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 19.7 days ±â€Š6.9 days. The most common indication for tracheostomy was acute respiratory distress syndrome, followed by failure to wean ventilation and post-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation decannulation. Thirty patients (56.6%) were liberated from the ventilator, 16 (30.2%) have been discharged alive, 7 (13.2%) have been decannulated, and 6 (11.3%) died. The average time from tracheostomy to ventilator liberation was 11.8 days ±â€Š6.9 days (range 2-32 days). Both open surgical and percutaneous dilational tracheostomy techniques were performed utilizing methods to mitigate aerosols. No healthcare worker transmissions resulted from performing the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations to tracheostomy practices and processes were successfully instituted. Following these steps, tracheostomy in COVID-19 intubated patients seems safe for both patients and healthcare workers performing the procedure.

COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult