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1.
Saf Sci ; 155: 105879, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956347

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 had a huge impact on healthcare systems globally. Institutions, care teams and individuals made considerable efforts to adapt their practices. The present longitudinal, mixed-methods study examined a large sample of healthcare institution employees in Switzerland. Organisational resilience processes were assessed by identifying problematic real-world situations and evaluating how they were managed during three phases of the pandemic's first year. Results highlighted differences between resilience processes across the different types of problematic situations encountered by healthcare workers. Four configurations of organisational resilience were identified depending on teams' performance and ability to adapt over time: "learning from mistakes", "effective development", "new standards" and "hindered resilience". Resilience trajectories differed depending on professional categories, hierarchical status and the problematic situation's perceived severity. Factors promoting or impairing organisational resilience are discussed. Findings highlighted the importance of individuals', teams' and institutions' meso- and micro-level adaptations and macro-level actors' structural actions.

2.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 199, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains elusive how the characteristics, the course of disease, the clinical management and the outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) worldwide have changed over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: Prospective, observational registry constituted by 90 ICUs across 22 countries worldwide including patients with a laboratory-confirmed, critical presentation of COVID-19 requiring advanced organ support. Hierarchical, generalized linear mixed-effect models accounting for hospital and country variability were employed to analyse the continuous evolution of the studied variables over the pandemic. RESULTS: Four thousand forty-one patients were included from March 2020 to September 2021. Over this period, the age of the admitted patients (62 [95% CI 60-63] years vs 64 [62-66] years, p < 0.001) and the severity of organ dysfunction at ICU admission decreased (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment 8.2 [7.6-9.0] vs 5.8 [5.3-6.4], p < 0.001) and increased, while more female patients (26 [23-29]% vs 41 [35-48]%, p < 0.001) were admitted. The time span between symptom onset and hospitalization as well as ICU admission became longer later in the pandemic (6.7 [6.2-7.2| days vs 9.7 [8.9-10.5] days, p < 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 at admission was lower (132 [123-141] mmHg vs 101 [91-113] mmHg, p < 0.001) but showed faster improvements over the initial 5 days of ICU stay in late 2021 compared to early 2020 (34 [20-48] mmHg vs 70 [41-100] mmHg, p = 0.05). The number of patients treated with steroids and tocilizumab increased, while the use of therapeutic anticoagulation presented an inverse U-shaped behaviour over the course of the pandemic. The proportion of patients treated with high-flow oxygen (5 [4-7]% vs 20 [14-29], p < 0.001) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (14 [11-18]% vs 24 [17-33]%, p < 0.001) throughout the pandemic increased concomitant to a decrease in invasive mechanical ventilation (82 [76-86]% vs 74 [64-82]%, p < 0.001). The ICU mortality (23 [19-26]% vs 17 [12-25]%, p < 0.001) and length of stay (14 [13-16] days vs 11 [10-13] days, p < 0.001) decreased over 19 months of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Characteristics and disease course of critically ill COVID-19 patients have continuously evolved, concomitant to the clinical management, throughout the pandemic leading to a younger, less severely ill ICU population with distinctly different clinical, pulmonary and inflammatory presentations than at the onset of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries
3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30183, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911926

ABSTRACT

STUDY AIM: The surge of admissions due to severe COVID-19 increased the patients-to-critical care staffing ratio within the ICUs. We investigated whether the daily level of staffing was associated with an increased risk of ICU mortality (primary endpoint), length of stay (LOS), mechanical ventilation and the evolution of disease (secondary endpoints). METHODS: We employed a retrospective multicentre analysis of the international Risk Stratification in COVID-19 patients in the ICU (RISC-19-ICU) registry, limited to the period between March 1 and May 31, 2020, and to Switzerland. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate crude and adjusted effects of the critical care staffing ratio on study endpoints. We adjusted for disease severity and weekly caseload. RESULTS: Among the 38 participating Swiss ICUs, 17 recorded staffing information. The study population included 437 patients and 2,342 daily assessments of patient-to-critical care staffing ratio. Median of daily patient-to-nurse ratio started at 1.0 [IQR 0.5-1.5; calendar week 9] and peaked at 2.4 (IQR 0.4-2.0; calendar week 16), while the median of daily patient-to-physician ratio started at 4.0 (IQR 2.1-5.0; calendar week 9) and peaked at 6.8 (IQR 6.3-7.3; calendar week 19). Neither the patient-to-nurse (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.85-1.93; doubling of ratio) nor the patient-to-physician ratio (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.32; doubling of ratio) were associated with ICU mortality. We found no association of daily critical care staffing on the secondary endpoints in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: We found no association of reduced availability of critical care staffing resources in Swiss ICUs with overall ICU length of stay nor mortality. Whether long-term outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19 have been affected remains to be studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , Workforce
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911287

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) have significantly suffered during the COVID-19 pandemic, reporting a high prevalence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated with this survey whether HCWs benefitted from supportive measures put in place by hospitals and how these measures were perceived. This cross-sectional survey, which was conducted during the first wave of COVID-19 at the Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland, between May and July 2021, collected information on the use and perception of practical and mental health support measures provided by the hospital. In total, 3461 HCWs participated in the study. Regarding the practical support measures, 2896 (84%) participants found them useful, and 2650 (76%) used them. Regarding the mental health support measures, 3149 (90%) participants found useful to have the possibility of attending hypnosis sessions, 3163 (91%) to have a psychologist within hospital units, 3202 (93%) to have a medical nursing psychiatric permanence available seven days a week, and 3171 (92%) to have a hotline available seven days a week. In total, 436 (13%) HCWs used at least one of the available mental health support measures. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the support measures were valued by HCWs. Given the high prevalence of psychiatric issues among HCWs, these measures seem necessary and are likely to have alleviated the suffering of HCWs.

5.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 263, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a serious impact on global mental health, particularly in intensive care unit survivors. Given the lethal potential and unpredictability of coronavirus disease 2019, a high risk of posttraumatic stress disorder was identified in the beginning of the crisis. There are insufficient details in current literature and no official guidelines available for the treatment and follow-up of acute stress disorder and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder for intensive care unit survivors in the context of coronavirus disease 2019. CASE PRESENTATION: We hereby describe a 67-year-old Swiss patient presenting a psychiatric reaction in the context of coronavirus disease 2019. He was admitted to the intensive care unit due to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and intubated for 13 days. Afterwards, there was a severe worsening of acute renal failure prompting hemodialysis, and he developed delirium. Psychiatric liaison was requested 4 days post-intubation because the patient presented residual symptoms of delirium, false memories about the real context of his medical care, and ideas of persecution toward medical caregivers. He suffered from a very strong peritraumatic reaction, then developed an acute stress disorder linked with his care on the intensive care unit. We looked for strategies to prevent progression from acute stress disorder to posttraumatic stress disorder. We proceeded to the following therapeutic interventions: intensive psychiatric follow-up, intensive care unit diary, and low-dose antipsychotic treatment. The aim of our psychotherapeutic approach was to allow him to increase his feeling of security and to cope with the reality of his traumatic experience. He showed clinical improvement in his mental state after 3 months, despite several predictive factors of evolution to post-intensive care unit posttraumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: This case report illustrates how a delusional clinical presentation after intensive care in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 can hide psychotraumatic symptoms. It is important to highlight that the intensive care unit diary completed by the intensive care team and the follow-up by the psychiatric liaison team helped the patient reconstruct an appropriate and coherent account. Further studies are needed to determine the psychiatric effects of coronavirus disease 2019 and to assess early and appropriate psychiatric intervention for patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Aged , Delirium/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Survivors
6.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(4): e12712, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858915

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 suffered initially from high rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), with possible associations between therapeutic anticoagulation and better clinical outcomes in observational studies. Objective: To test whether therapeutic anticoagulation improves clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19. Patients/Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, we recruited acutely ill medical COVID-19 patients with D-dimer >1000 ng/ml or critically ill COVID-19 patients in four Swiss hospitals, from April 2020 until June 2021, with a 30-day follow-up. Participants were randomized to in-hospital therapeutic anticoagulation versus low-dose anticoagulation in acutely ill participants/intermediate-dose anticoagulation in critically ill participants, with enoxaparin or unfractionated heparins. The primary outcome was a centrally adjudicated composite of 30-day all-cause mortality, VTE, arterial thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with screening for proximal deep vein thrombosis. Results: Among 159 participants, 55.3% were critically ill and 94.3% received corticosteroids. Before study inclusion, pulmonary embolism had been excluded in 71.7%. The primary outcome occurred in 4/79 participants randomized to therapeutic anticoagulation and 4/80 to low/intermediate anticoagulation (5.4% vs. 5.0%; risk difference +0.4%; adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.18-3.21), including three deaths in each group. All primary outcomes and major bleeding (n = 3) occurred in critically ill participants. There was no asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis and no difference in major bleeding. Conclusions: Among patients with severe COVID-19 treated with corticosteroids and with exclusion of pulmonary embolism at hospital admission for most, risks of mortality, thrombotic outcomes, and DIC were low at 30 days. The lack of benefit of therapeutic anticoagulation was too imprecise for definite conclusions.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313291

ABSTRACT

Background: The modifications to the standard intensive care unit (ICU) organization that had to be urgently implemented worldwide to overcome the surge of ICU admissions due to patients with a severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have resulted in increased workload and patients-to-nurse ratio. The aim of this study was to investigate whether level of critical care staffing could be associated with an increased risk of ICU mortality (primary endpoint), length of stay, mechanical ventilation and the evolution of disease (secondary study endpoints) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods Retrospective multicenter analysis of the international Risk Stratification in COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (RISC-19-ICU) registry that prospectively enrolls patients developing critical illness due to COVID-19 in several countries worldwide. The analysis was limited to the period between March 1st, 2020 and May 31st, 2020, to ICUs in Switzerland that have collected additional data on nurse and physician staffing. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate crude and adjusted effects of critical care staffing ratio on study endpoints. We adjusted for diseases severity and weekly caseload. Results Among the 38 Swiss participating ICUs, 17 recorded critical care staffing information. The study population included 437 patients and 2342 daily assessments of patient-to-nurse/physician ratio. Median of daily patient-to-nurse ratio started at 1.0 ([IQR] 0.5–1.5;calendar week 9) and peaked at 2.4 (IQR 0.4-2.0;calendar week 16), while the median of daily patient-to-physician ratio started at 4.0 (IQR 2.1-5.0;calendar week 9) and peaked at 6.8 (IQR 6.3–7.3;calendar week 19). Neither the patient-to-nurse ratio [adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–1.94;doubling of ratio] nor the patient-to-physician ratio [adjusted OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.87–1.32;doubling of ratio] was associated with ICU mortality. We found no association of critical care staffing on the investigated secondary study endpoints in adjusted models. COnclusion The Swiss health care system successfully overcame the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic with regards to the unprecedented demand for ICU treatments. The reduced availability of critical care staffing resources per critically ill patient in Swiss ICUs did not translate in an overall increased risk of mortality.

8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 106, 2021 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intensive care workers are known for their stressful work environment and for a high prevalence of mental health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health, well-being and changes in lifestyle among intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers (HCW) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare these results with those of HCW in other hospital units. Another objective was to understand which associated factors aggravate their mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey collected socio-demographic data, lifestyle changes and mental health evaluations as assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 items (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 items (PHQ-9), the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) and the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) from the 28th May to 7th July 2020. The study was carried out at Geneva University Hospitals, a group of eight public hospitals in Switzerland. ICU HCW were analyzed for mental health outcomes and lifestyles changes and then compared to non-ICU HCW. A series of linear regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with mental health scores. RESULTS: A total of 3461 HCW were included in the study, with 352 ICU HCW. Among ICU HCW, 145 (41%) showed low well-being, 162 (46%) symptoms of anxiety, 163 (46%) symptoms of depression and 76 (22%) had peritraumatic distress. The mean scores of GAD-7, PHQ-9 and WHO-5 were worse in ICU HCW than in non-ICU HCW (p < 0.01). Working in the ICU rather than in other departments resulted in a change of eating habits, sleeping patterns and alcohol consumption (p < 0.01). Being a woman, the fear of catching and transmitting COVID-19, anxiety of working with COVID-19 patients, work overload, eating and sleeping disorders as well as increased alcohol consumption were associated with worse mental health outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the suspicion of a high prevalence of anxiety, depression, peritraumatic distress and low well-being during the first COVID-19 wave among HCW, especially among ICU HCW. This allows for the identification of associated risk factors. Long-term psychological follow-up should be considered for HCW.

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 175, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about the optimal respiratory support strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients is widespread. While the risks and benefits of noninvasive techniques versus early invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are intensely debated, actual evidence is lacking. We sought to assess the risks and benefits of different respiratory support strategies, employed in intensive care units during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic on intubation and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective, multinational registry of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were subclassified into standard oxygen therapy ≥10 L/min (SOT), high-flow oxygen therapy (HFNC), noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIV), and early IMV, according to the respiratory support strategy employed at the day of admission to ICU. Propensity score matching was performed to ensure comparability between groups. RESULTS: Initially, 1421 patients were assessed for possible study inclusion. Of these, 351 patients (85 SOT, 87 HFNC, 87 NIV, and 92 IMV) remained eligible for full analysis after propensity score matching. 55% of patients initially receiving noninvasive respiratory support required IMV. The intubation rate was lower in patients initially ventilated with HFNC and NIV compared to those who received SOT (SOT: 64%, HFNC: 52%, NIV: 49%, p = 0.025). Compared to the other respiratory support strategies, NIV was associated with a higher overall ICU mortality (SOT: 18%, HFNC: 20%, NIV: 37%, IMV: 25%, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, a trial of HFNC appeared to be the most balanced initial respiratory support strategy, given the reduced intubation rate and comparable ICU mortality rate. Nonetheless, considering the uncertainty and stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, SOT and early IMV represented safe initial respiratory support strategies. The presented findings, in agreement with classic ARDS literature, suggest that NIV should be avoided whenever possible due to the elevated ICU mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Saf Sci ; 139: 105277, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207078

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic's first wave required considerable adaptation efforts on the part of healthcare workers. The literature on resilient healthcare describes how the collective regulation strategies implemented by frontline employees make essential contributions to institutions' abilities to cope with major crises. The present mixed-methodology study was thus conducted among a large sample of employees in a variety of Swiss healthcare institutions and focused on problematic real-world situations experienced by them and their managers during the pandemic's first wave. It highlighted the anticipatory and adaptive strategies implemented by institutions, teams and individuals. The most frequently cited problematic situations involved organisational changes, interpersonal conflicts and workloads. In addition to the numerous top-down measures implemented by institutions, respondents also identified personal or team regulation strategies such as increasing staff flexibility, prioritising tasks, interprofessional collaboration, peer support or creating new communication channels to families. The present findings underlined the importance of taking greater account of healthcare support staff and strengthening managerial capacity to support interprofessional teams including those support staff.

11.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0173, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In many countries, large numbers of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 are admitted to the ICUs within a short period of time, overwhelming usual care capacities. Preparedness and reorganization ahead of the wave to increase ICU surge capacity may be associated with favorable outcome. The purpose of this study was to report our experience in terms of ICU organization and anticipation, as well as reporting patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: The division of intensive care at the Geneva University Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). PATIENTS: All consecutive adult patients with acute respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 admitted in the ICU between March 9, 2020, and May 19, 2020, were enrolled. Patients' demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory values, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The ICU was reorganized into cells of six to eight patients under the care of three physicians and five nurses. Its capacity increased from 30 to 110 beds, fully equipped and staffed, transforming the surgical intermediate care unit, the postoperative care facility, and operating theaters into ICUs. Surge capacity has always exceeded the number of patients hospitalized. Among 129 critically ill patients with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, 96% required invasive mechanical ventilation. A total of 105 patients (81%) were discharged alive and 24 died, corresponding to a mortality of 19%. Patients who died were significantly older, with higher severity scores at admission, had higher levels of d-dimers, plasma creatinine, high-sensitive troponin T, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin, and required more frequent prone sessions. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid increase in ICU bed capacity, including adequate equipment and staffing, allowed for a large number of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients to be taken care of within a short period of time. Anticipation and preparedness ahead of the wave may account for the low mortality observed in our center. These results highlight the importance of resources management strategy in the context of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

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