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1.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 9(1)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether exposure to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modifiers affects the severity of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because most of the available studies are retrospective. METHODS: We tested the prognostic value of exposure to RAS modifiers (either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACE-Is] or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) in a prospective study of hypertensive patients with COVID-19. We analyzed data from 566 patients (mean age 75 years, 54% males, 162 ACE-Is users, and 147 ARBs users) hospitalized in five Italian hospitals. The study used systematic prospective data collection according to a pre-specified protocol. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients died during hospitalization. Exposure to RAS modifiers was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality when compared to other BP-lowering strategies (odds ratio [OR]: 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.90, p = 0.019). Exposure to ACE-Is was not significantly associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality when compared with patients not treated with RAS modifiers (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.36 to 1.20, p = 0.172). Conversely, ARBs users showed a 59% lower risk of death (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.84, p = 0.016) even after allowance for several prognostic markers, including age, oxygen saturation, occurrence of severe hypotension during hospitalization, and lymphocyte count (adjusted OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.80, p = 0.012). The discontinuation of RAS modifiers during hospitalization did not exert a significant effect (p = 0.515). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study indicates that exposure to ARBs reduces mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599013

ABSTRACT

The Lombardy region has been one of the areas most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic since the first months of 2020, providing real-life experiences in the acute phase. It is unclear how the respiratory rehabilitation network responded to this emergency. The aims of this retrospective study were: i) to analyze clinical, functional, and disability data at admission; ii) describe assessment tools and rehabilitative programs; iii) evaluate improvement after rehabilitation. The study was conducted on data collected from ten pulmonary rehabilitation centers in Lombardy, between the period of March 1st 2020 to March 1st 2021, in patients with respiratory failure recovering from COVID-19 both at admission and discharge. The study included demographics, comorbidities, nutritional status, risk of falls, disability status (Barthel index; Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); 6 minutes walking test (6MWT), symptoms (dyspnoea with Barthel Dyspnoea and MRC Dyspnoea Scale), length of stay, discharge destination, need for mechanical ventilation, respiratory function, assessment/outcomes indices, and prescribed rehabilitative programs. 413 patients were analyzed. Length of stay in acute and rehabilitative units was less than 30 days. Fifty % of patients used non-invasive ventilation during their stay. Functional status was mildly compromised for forced volumes and oxygenation, while severely compromised for diffusion capacity. Independency was low while physical performance status very low.  At discharge, 318 (77%) patients were sent home, 83 (20.1%) were transferred to an acute unit and 12 (2.9%) passed away. Barthel Index and 6MWT were the most used, while MRC score was the least used outcome parameter. The 5 main rehabilitative activities were walking (90.8 %), transfer from bed to armchair (77.5%), limb mobilization in bed (76%), balance (71.2%), and cycle-ergometer or treadmill (43.1%). A huge difference was found in admission, discharge, and delta change among different rehabilitative centers. When available, all outcomes showed a significant improvement. With the limitation of a retrospective study with a clear amount of missing data, COVID-19 subjects admitted to rehabilitative centers presented a reduced physical performance, symptoms of dyspnoea, and severe disability. The 6MWT and Barthel index were the most used measurement.

3.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(4)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599011

ABSTRACT

As part of the Italian Health Service the respiratory ICS Maugeri network were reconfigured and several in-hospital programs were suspended to be substituted by workforce and facilities reorganization for acute and post-acute COVID-19 care need. The present review shows the time course variation of respiratory ICS network in terms of admissions diagnosis and outcomes. A comparative review of the admissions and outcome measures data (anthropometric, admission diagnosis, provenience, comorbidities, disability, symptoms, effort tolerance, disease impact, length of stay and discharge destinations) over 1 year period (March 2020-March 2021) was undertaken and compared to retrospective data from a corresponding 1 year (March 2019-March 2020) period to determine the impact of the network relocation on the delivery of pulmonary specialist rehabilitation to patients with complex needs during the pandemic episode. One of the changes implemented at the respiratory Maugeri network was the relocation of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation units from its 351 beds base to a repurposed 247 beds and a reduction in total number of admitted patients (n=3912 in pre-COVID time; n=2089 in post COVID time). All respiratory diagnosis, except COVID sequelae, decreased (chronic respiratory failure-CRF, COPD, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome-OSAS, interstitial lung disease-ILD, tracheostomized patients and other mixed diseases decreased of 734, 705, 157, 87, 79 and 326 units respectively). During the pandemic time, 265 post COVID sequelae with CRF were admitted for rehabilitation (12.62%), % of patients coming from acute hospital increased, LOS and NIV use remained stable while CPAP indication decreased. Disease impact, dyspnea and effort tolerance as their improvements after rehabilitation, were similar in the two periods.  Only baseline disability, expressed by Barthel index, seems higher in the 2° observation time as its improvement. Hospital deaths and transfers to acute hospitals were higher during pandemic crisis while home destination decreased. This review demonstrated impact of coronavirus pandemic situation, specifically the relocation of the respiratory inpatient rehabilitation wards in a huge Italian network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Intern Med ; 89: 81-86, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209445

ABSTRACT

AIMS: heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independent predictors of death in patients with COVID-19. The adverse prognostic impact of the combination of HF and CAD in these patients is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: we analysed data from 954 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 in five Italian Hospitals from February 23 to May 22, 2020. The study was a systematic prospective data collection according to a pre-specified protocol. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was the outcome measure. Mean duration of hospitalization was 33 days. Mortality was 11% in the total population and 7.4% in the group without evidence of HF or CAD (reference group). Mortality was 11.6% in the group with CAD and without HF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6, p = 0.120), 15.5% in the group with HF and without CAD (OR: 2.3, p = 0.032), and 35.6% in the group with CAD and HF (OR: 6.9, p<0.0001). The risk of mortality in patients with CAD and HF combined was consistently higher than the sum of risks related to either disorder, resulting in a significant synergistic effect (p<0.0001) of the two conditions. Age-adjusted attributable proportion due to interaction was 64%. Adjusting for the simultaneous effects of age, hypotension, and lymphocyte count did not significantly lower attributable proportion which persisted statistically significant (p = 0.0360). CONCLUSION: The combination of HF and CAD exerts a marked detrimental impact on the risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, which is independent on other adverse prognostic markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688266

ABSTRACT

There is a need of consensus about the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COVID-19 after discharge from acute care. To facilitate the knowledge of the evidence and its translation into practice, we developed suggestions based on experts' opinion. A steering committee identified areas and questions sent to experts. Other international experts participated to a RAND Delphi method in reaching consensus and proposing further suggestions. Strong agreement in suggestions was defined when the mean agreement was >7 (1 = no agreement and 9 = maximal agreement). Panelists response rate was >95%. Twenty-three questions from 4 areas: Personnel protection equipment, phenotypes, assessments, interventions, were identified and experts answered with 121 suggestions, 119 of which received high level of concordance. The evidence-based suggestions provide the clinicians with current evidence and clinical experts opinion. This framework can be used to facilitate clinical decision making within the context of the individual patient. Further studies will evaluate the clinical usefulness of these suggestions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Insufficiency/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Ambulatory Care , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delphi Technique , Exercise Test , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
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