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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 50, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779649

ABSTRACT

The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18-19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year's focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1-5, and STEP 1-5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed.Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10-11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-stranded single-stranded RNA virus, a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B) and responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 encompasses a large range of disease severity, from mild symptoms to severe forms with Intensive Care Unit admission and eventually death. The severe forms of COVID-19 are usually observed in high-risk patients, such as those with type two diabetes mellitus. Here, we review the available evidence linking acute and chronic hyperglycemia to COVID-19 outcomes, describing also the putative mediators of such interactions. FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperglycemia at hospital admission represents a risk factor for poor COVID-19 prognosis in patients with and without diabetes. Acute and chronic glycemic control are both emerging as major determinants of vaccination efficacy, disease severity and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients. Mechanistically, it has been proposed that hyperglycemia might be a disease-modifier for COVID-19 through multiple mechanisms: (a) induction of glycation and oligomerization of ACE2, the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2; (b) increased expression of the serine protease TMPRSS2, responsible for S protein priming; (c) impairment of the function of innate and adaptive immunity despite the induction of higher pro-inflammatory responses, both local and systemic. Consistently, managing acute hyperglycemia through insulin infusion has been suggested to improve clinical outcomes, while implementing chronic glycemic control positively affects immune response following vaccination. Although more research is warranted to better disentangle the relationship between hyperglycemia and COVID-19, it might be worth considering glycemic control as a potential route to optimize disease prevention and management.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329936

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are characterized by blunted immune responses, which are affected by glycaemic control. Whether glycaemic control influences the response to COVID-19 vaccines and the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections is unknown. To explore the association between glycaemic control and immune responses or breakthrough infections in patients with T2D after mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccination, we conducted a prospective observational study among healthcare and educator workers with T2D receiving the mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine in Campania (Italy). Patients were followed for one year (5 visits) after one full vaccination cycle to evaluate immune responses and monitor the incidence of breakthrough infections. The one-year mean of HbA1c values and canonical risk factors were used to estimate their association with breakthrough infections through Cox regression models adjusted for multiple variables. Overall, 494 subjects were followed up for 346 ± 49 days and completed the study. Patients with good glycaemic control (HbA1c one-year mean < 7%) showed a higher virus-neutralizing antibody capacity and a better CD4 + T/cytokine response, compared with those with poor control (HbA1c one-year mean ≥ 7%). One-year mean of HbA1c was significantly associated with the incidence of breakthrough infections (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.285;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.106 to 0.768;p = 0.013). Among other factors, only smoking status was associated with the incidence of breakthrough infections (HR = 0.360, CI 0.181–0.716 for non-smokers). In summary, poor glycaemic control, assessed as mean HbA1c in the post-vaccination period, is associated with lower immune responses and an increased incidence of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in T2D patients vaccinated with mRNA-BNT162b2.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322101

ABSTRACT

Evidence regarding the relation between SARS-CoV-2 mortality and the underlying medical condition is scarce. We conducted an observational, retrospective study based on Romanian official data about location, age, sex and comorbidities for COVID-19 fatalities. Our findings indicate that males, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease were most frequent in the COVID-19 fatalities, that the burden of disease was low, and that the prognosis for 1-year survival probability was high in the sample. Evidence shows that age-dependent pairs of comorbidities could be a negative prognosis factor for the severity of disease for the SARS-CoV 2 infection.

5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 787761, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603363

ABSTRACT

Efforts in the fight against COVID-19 are achieving success in many parts of the world, although progress remains slow in other regions. We believe that a syndemic approach needs to be adopted to address this pandemic given the strong apparent interplay between COVID-19, its related complications, and the socio-structural environment. We have assembled an international, multidisciplinary group of researchers and clinical practitioners to promote a novel syndemic approach to COVID-19: the CArdiometabolic Panel of International experts on Syndemic COvid-19 (CAPISCO). This geographically diverse group aims to facilitate collaborative-networking and scientific exchanges between researchers and clinicians facing a multitude of challenges on different continents during the pandemic. In the present article we present our "manifesto", with the intent to provide evidence-based guidance to the global medical and scientific community for better management of patients both during and after the current pandemic.

6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 218, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503722

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors for heart failure, the prevalence of which is increasing worldwide. The aim of the review is to highlight the current perspectives of the pathophysiology of heart failure as it pertains to type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the proposed mechanistic bases, explaining the myocardial damage induced by diabetes-related stressors and other risk factors, i.e., cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes. We highlight the complex pathology of individuals with type 2 diabetes, including the relationship with chronic kidney disease, metabolic alterations, and heart failure. We also discuss the current criteria used for heart failure diagnosis and the gold standard screening tools for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Currently approved pharmacological therapies with primary use in type 2 diabetes and heart failure, and the treatment-guiding role of NT-proBNP are also presented. Finally, the influence of the presence of type 2 diabetes as well as heart failure on COVID-19 severity is briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Management , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening/trends , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis
7.
iScience ; 24(8): 102898, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322153

ABSTRACT

The clinical benefit of convalescent plasma (CP) for patients with coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is still debated. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we selected 10 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 15 non-randomized studies (total number of patients = 22,591) of CP treatment and evaluated two different scenarios: (1) disease stage of plasma recipients and (2) donated plasma antibody titer, considering all-cause mortality at the latest follow-up. Our results show that, when provided at early stages of the disease, CP significantly reduced mortality: risk ratio (RR) 0.72 (0.68, 0.77), p < 0.00001, while provided in severe or critical conditions, it did not (RR: 0.94 [0.86, 1.04], p = 0.22). On the other hand, the benefit on mortality was not increased by using plasma with a high-antibody titer compared with unselected plasma. This meta-analysis might promote CP usage in patients with early-stage COVID-19 in further RCTs to maximize its benefit in decreasing mortality, especially in less affluent countries.

8.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3476, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245386

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Diabetes is emerging as a risk factor for coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 prognosis. However, contradictory findings have been reported regarding the impact of glycaemic control on COVID-19 outcome. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the impact of hospital pre-admission or at-admission values of HbA1c on COVID-19 mortality or worsening in patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus up to 30th December 2020. Eligibility criteria for study selection were the following: (1)enrolling patients with any form of diabetes mellitus and hospitalized for COVID-19 and (2) reporting data regarding HbA1c values before infection or at hospital admission in relation to COVID-19 mortality or worsening. Descriptive statistics, HbA1c values, odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios were extracted from seven observational studies and generic inverse variance (random effects) of OR was used to estimate the effect of HbA1c on COVID-19 outcome. RESULTS: HbA1c was linearly associated with an increased COVID-19 mortality or worsening when considered as a continuous variable (OR 1.01 [1.01, 1.01]; p < 0.00001). Similarly, when analysing studies providing the number of events according to the degree of glycaemic control among various strata, a significantly increased risk was observed with poor glycaemic control (OR 1.15 [1.11, 1.19]; p < 0.00001), a result corroborated by sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding the large heterogeneity in study design and patients' characteristics in the few available studies, data suggest that patients with diabetes and poor glycaemic control before infection might have an increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycated Hemoglobin A , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Risk Assessment
9.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(7): 107927, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188733

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests that diabetes is one the most relevant comorbidity in affecting the prognosis of COVID-19. Albeit there are no specific trials nor subgroup analysis showing the effect of COVID-19 therapies in patients with diabetes, selected features of this disease and the side effects associated with certain drugs require a proper knowledge to optimize the pharmacological therapy of patients with diabetes and COVID-19. While chronic anti-hypertensive and glucose-lowering therapies should not be discontinued nor preferred for preventive purposes, the low-grade pro-inflammatory, the thrombosis-prone status of diabetes, the role of acute hyperglycaemia in promoting adverse outcomes in patients admitted to ICU, and the observed increased mortality in patients with poor long-term glycaemic control delineate a delicate balance in case of severe forms of COVID-19. Here, we briefly summarized some of the key pharmacological issues linked to the management of patients with diabetes and COVID-19, in order to provide indications to minimize the deleterious effects of the concomitant presentation of these diseases and to use the existing pharmacological options in an appropriate manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans
10.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 2(4): e191, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164732
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 174: 108741, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116553
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21613, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972258

ABSTRACT

Evidence regarding the relation between SARS-CoV-2 mortality and the underlying medical condition is scarce. We conducted an observational, retrospective study based on Romanian official data about location, age, gender and comorbidities for COVID-19 fatalities. Our findings indicate that males, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease were most frequent in the COVID-19 fatalities, that the burden of disease was low, and that the prognosis for 1-year survival probability was high in the sample. Evidence shows that age-dependent pairs of comorbidities could be a negative prognosis factor for the severity of disease for the SARS-CoV 2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/ethnology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/ethnology , Obesity/mortality , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , Romania/ethnology
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 169: 108491, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813545
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108384, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728515
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108383, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728514
18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656673

ABSTRACT

In the pandemic "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) people with diabetes have a high risk to require ICU admission. The management of diabetes in Intensive Care Unit is always challenging, however, when diabetes is present in COVID-19 the situation seems even more complicated. An optimal glycemic control, avoiding acute hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability may significantly improve the outcome. In this case, intravenous insulin infusion with continuous glucose monitoring should be the choice. No evidence suggests stopping angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-renin-blockers or statins, even it has been suggested that they may increase the expression of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is used by "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to penetrate into the cells. A real issue is the usefulness of several biomarkers, which have been suggested to be measured during the COVID-19. N-Terminal-pro-Brain Natriuretic-Peptide, D-dimer and hs-Troponin are often increased in diabetes. Their meaning in the case of diabetes and COVID-19 should be therefore very carefully evaluated. Even though we understand that in such a critical situation some of these requests are not so easy to implement, we believe that the best possible action to prevent a worse outcome is essential in any medical act.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Farmacia ; 3(68): 377-383, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-638983

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 continuous spreading, this paper focuses on the increased risk of diabetic patients regarding the metabolic control and the uncertainties related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chronic hyperglycaemia negatively affects the immune system, which triggers an increase of morbidity and mortality for viral infections. A key aspect of COVID-19 resides in the involvement of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system that causes a cascade of reactions mediated by vasoactive peptides with implications in vasoconstriction, vascular permeability, oxidative stress remodelling and tissue injuries. Activation of RAAS at pulmonary level, is responsible for the local damage. Many questions regarding the treatment with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were raised considering the correlation between RAAS and viral infection in diabetic patients.

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