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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057985, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their inherent vulnerabilities, the burden of COVID-19 and particularly of its control measures on migrants has been magnified. A thorough assessment of the value of the interventions for COVID-19 tailored to migrants is essential for improving their health outcomes as well as promoting an effective control of the pandemic. In this study, based on evidence from primary biomedical research, we aimed to systematically identify health interventions for COVID-19 targeting migrants and to assess and compare their effectiveness. The review will be conducted within a programme aimed at defining and implementing interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and conducted by a consortium of Italian regional health authorities. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Embase, LOVE Platform COVID-19 Evidence, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies must evaluate health interventions for COVID-19 in migrants. Two independent reviewers will screen articles for inclusion using predefined eligibility criteria, extract data of retained articles and assess methodological quality by applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. In synthesising the evidence, we will structure results by interventions, outcomes and quality. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous, trial data will be pooled and meta-analyses will be performed. Data will be reported according to methodological guidelines for systematic review provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a review of existing literature, and ethics approval is not required. We will submit results for peer-review publication and present at relevant conferences. The review findings will be included in future efforts to develop evidence-informed recommendations, policies or programmatic actions at the national and regional levels and address future high-quality research in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 71, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332318

ABSTRACT

Despite the pandemic, 34,154 migrants, refugees or asylum-seekers landed in Sicily (Italy) in 2020, representing the main point of entry by sea into Europe. The SARS-CoV-2 surveillance program among migrants arriving to Sicily via the Mediterranean Sea, made by the combination of clinical examination and molecular testing, has been integrated by full-genome sequencing strains using the NGS technology from the last week of February. To date, more than one hundred full-genome strains have been sequenced and 8 different lineages have been identified mostly belonging to the lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.525. As global access to COVID-19 vaccines should be ensured, the need to provide more detailed information to inform policies and to drive the possible re-engineering of vaccines needed to deal with the challenge of new and future variants should be highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sicily/epidemiology
4.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 315-322, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effects of a pre-existing condition of diabetes and of the use of antidiabetic drugs in the Sicilian population on different outcomes of the COVID-19 disease. DESIGN: a retrospective observational study based was used. Data deriving from the COVID-19 epidemic surveillance and from the collection of information on drugs consume by Sicilian residents. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: due to the data availability, the study was calibrated on the Region and included all population distinguishing by gender and age groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the risks of cumulative incidence for COVID-19 were investigated in people who had diabetes comorbidities to incur a hospitalization for COVID-19, to be treated within an intensive care unit, and lethality. The role of previous antidiabetic drug treatments with respect to each study outcome was also investigated. RESULTS: in Sicily, from 01.03.2020 to 26.06.2020, a number of 172 cases of COVID-19 disease with diabetes comorbidity were diagnosed. The data did not show any difference in the cumulative incidence for COVID-19 between diabetics (64.2/100,000 inhabitants) and non-diabetics (56.9/100,000 inhabitants) patients. Diabetes increases the risk of hospitalization in the under 80 in both men and women (men: OR 2.62; women OR 4.31), for treatment in intensive care (men: OR 4,41; women: OR 7.74), and for death (men: OR 5.21; women OR 5.92). The analysis of drug using showed risks effect of insulin (OR 2.13) on hospitalization, sulfonylureas/glinides (OR 2.58) on intensive care and protective of metformin on death both in single component (OR 0.44) and in multicomponent (OR 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: data availability made it possible to monitor the occurrence and explore some of the characteristics of the cases with COVID-19 in Sicily. Diabetes does not seem to represent a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Sicily, while previous diabetes condition seems to determine greater risk of hospitalization, treatment in intensive care, and lethality among over 80. There are also gender differences with almost double risks in women for hospitalization and intensive care only. Among the antidiabetic drugs investigated, there was a risk for hospitalization and intensive care while protective for deaths. This study represents an important tool for the activation of intervention programmes in the area aimed at populations with greater health risk deriving from the effects of this new pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sicily/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(2): 396-398, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with higher incidence of severe cases of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients, but it is unknown whether DM is a risk factor for the overall COVID-19 incidence. The aim of present study was to investigate whether there is an association of DM with COVID-19 prevalence and case fatality, and between different DM medications and risk for COVID-19 infection and death. METHODS AND RESULTS: retrospective observational study on all SARS-CoV-2 positive (SARS-CoV-2+) cases and deaths in Sicily up to 2020, May 14th. No difference in COVID-19 prevalence was found between people with and without DM (RR 0.92 [0.79-1.09]). Case fatality was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2+ with DM (RR 4.5 [3.55-5.71]). No diabetes medication was associated with differences in risk for SARS-Cov2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: in Sicily, DM was not a risk factor for COVID-19 infection, whereas it was associated with a higher case fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicily/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102939, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. METHODS: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines. FINDINGS: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke. INTERPRETATION: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Tertiary Care Centers
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