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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598306

ABSTRACT

Human toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis caused by the migration of Toxocara species larvae through an organism. The infection in humans is transmitted either by direct ingestion of the eggs of the parasite, or by consuming undercooked meat infested with Toxocara larvae. This parasitosis can be found worldwide, but there are significant differences in seroprevalence in different areas, depending mainly on hot climate conditions and on low social status. However, the literature estimates of seroprevalence are inconsistent. Infected patients commonly present a range of symptoms, e.g., abdominal pain, decreased appetite, restlessness, fever, and coughing. This manuscript presents a case report of a polytraumatic patient who underwent a two-phase spinal procedure for a thoracolumbar fracture. After the second procedure, which was a vertebral body replacement via thoracotomy, the patient developed a pathologic pleural effusion. A microscopic cytology examination of this effusion revealed the presence of Toxocara species larvae. Although the patient presented no specific clinical symptoms, and the serological exams (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot) were negative, the microscopic evaluation enabled a timely diagnosis. The patient was successfully treated with albendazole, with no permanent sequelae of the infection.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Toxocariasis , Animals , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxocara , Toxocariasis/diagnosis , Toxocariasis/drug therapy
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 657-672, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222739

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide and continues to rise. There remains a significant unmet need for patients with hematological malignancies requiring specialized procedures and treatments, like cellular therapy to treat or cure their disease. For instance, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is approved for relapsed/refractory (after two or more lines of therapy) diffuse large B cell lymphoma and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is refractory or in the second relapse in patients younger than 25 years of age. Similarly, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be a lifesaving procedure for many patients, such as those with acute myeloid leukemia with high-risk cytogenetics. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic has thrust upon the hematologists and transplant specialists' unique challenges with the implementation and management of cellular therapy. One of the significant concerns regarding this immunocompromised patient population is the significant risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its highly contagious nature. Experts have recommended that if medically indicated, especially in high-risk disease (where chemotherapy is unlikely to work), these lifesaving procedures should not be delayed even during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, proceeding with CAR-T cell therapy and HSCT during the pandemic is a considerable task and requires dedication from the transplant team and buy-in from the patients and their family or support system. Open conversations should be held with the patients about the risks involved in undergoing cellular therapies during current times and the associated future uncertainties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1164-1170, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196441

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed an unprecedented challenge for the medical communities, various countries worldwide, and their citizens. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been studied for its various pathophysiological pathways and mechanisms through which it causes COVID-19. In this study, we discussed the immunological impact of COVID-19 on the hematological system, platelets, and red blood cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Hemolysis/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , Erythrocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Blood Rev ; 47: 100777, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912075

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is the most trending and talked topic across the World. From its point of origin in Wuhan, China to clinical laboratory at NIH, a mere six-month-old SARS-CoV-2 virus is keeping the clinicians, and scientists busy at various fronts. However, COVID-19 is an emerging and evolving disease and each day brings in more data, new figures, and findings from the field of clinical practice. The role of hematologists has been increasingly recognized during the current pandemic because of several reasons. Most important of them are the characteristic hematological findings of COVID-19 patients that also have prognostic implications and that were not seen in other viral infections. The treatment of hematological complications in COVID-19 patients is very challenging given the critical care setting. There are interim and limited guidelines thus far due to the novelty of the disease. As this remains to be a quite fluid situation, all the appropriate medical societies including the major hematology bodies are proposing initial and interim guidelines (e.g. ASH guideline). This puts a hematologist on consult service in a dubious position where, he/she must tailor the recommendations on case to case basis. The purpose of this review is to provide the background context about the impact of COVID-19 on the blood system and to summarize the current interim guidelines to manage the associated hematological issues in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Hematology , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(3): 657-662, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871528

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving health crisis caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a novel disease entity and we are in a learning phase with regards to the pathogenesis, disease manifestations, and therapeutics. In addition to the primary lung injury, many patients especially the ones with moderate to severe COVID-19 display evidence of endothelial damage, complement activation, which leads to a pro-coagulable state. While there are still missing links in our understanding, the interplay of endothelium, complement system activation, and immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a surprisingly major factor in COVID-19 pathogenesis. One could envision COVID-19 becoming a novel hematological syndrome. This review is to discuss the available literature with regards to the involvement of the complement system, and coagulation cascade and their interaction with endothelium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy
9.
Lab Med ; 52(1): 24-35, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691054

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a major setback in both the health and economic sectors across the globe. The scale of the problem is enormous because we still do not have any specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antiviral agent or vaccine. The human immune system has never been exposed to this novel virus, so the viral interactions with the human immune system are completely naive. New approaches are being studied at various levels, including animal in vitro models and human-based studies, to contain the COVID-19 pandemic as soon as possible. Many drugs are being tested for repurposing, but so far only remdesivir has shown some positive benefits based on preliminary reports, but these results also need further confirmation via ongoing trials. Otherwise, no other agents have shown an impactful response against COVID-19. Recently, research exploring the therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in critically ill patients suffering from COVID-19 has gained momentum. The patients belonging to this subset are most likely beyond the point where they could benefit from an antiviral therapy because most of their illness at this stage of disease is driven by inflammatory (over)response of the immune system. In this review, we discuss the potential of MSCs as a therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19, based on the encouraging results from the preliminary data showing improved outcomes in the progression of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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