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1.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1739-1748, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has overwhelmed healthcare resources even in wealthy nations, necessitating rationing of limited resources without previously established crisis standards of care protocols. In Massachusetts, triage guidelines were designed based on acute illness and chronic life-limiting conditions. In this study, we sought to retrospectively validate this protocol to cohorts of critically ill patients from our hospital. DESIGN: We applied our hospital-adopted guidelines, which defined severe and major chronic conditions as those associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of 1- and 5-year mortality, respectively, to a critically ill patient population. We investigated mortality for the same intervals. SETTING: An urban safety-net hospital ICU. PATIENTS: All adults hospitalized during April of 2015 and April 2019 identified through a clinical database search. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 365 admitted patients, 15.89% had one or more defined chronic life-limiting conditions. These patients had higher 1-year (46.55% vs 13.68%; p < 0.01) and 5-year (50.00% vs 17.22%; p < 0.01) mortality rates than those without underlying conditions. Irrespective of classification of disease severity, patients with metastatic cancer, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and neurodegenerative disease had greater than 50% 1-year mortality, whereas patients with chronic lung disease and cirrhosis had less than 50% 1-year mortality. Observed 1- and 5-year mortality for cirrhosis, heart failure, and metastatic cancer were more variable when subdivided into severe and major categories. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major and severe chronic medical conditions overall had 46.55% and 50.00% mortality at 1 and 5 years, respectively. However, mortality varied between conditions. Our findings appear to support a crisis standards protocol which focuses on acute illness severity and only considers underlying conditions carrying a greater than 50% predicted likelihood of 1-year mortality. Modifications to the chronic lung disease, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis criteria should be refined if they are to be included in future models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Crisis Intervention/standards , Resource Allocation/methods , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Crisis Intervention/methods , Crisis Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Resource Allocation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Safety-net Providers/organization & administration , Safety-net Providers/statistics & numerical data , Standard of Care/standards , Standard of Care/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106121, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054). CONCLUSION: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disability Evaluation , Europe , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Iran , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106118, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: RCVS (Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstrictive Syndrome) is a condition associated with vasoactive agents that alter endothelial function. There is growing evidence that endothelial inflammation contributes to cerebrovascular disease in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In our study, we describe the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of RCVS in a multicenter case series of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective case series. We collected clinical characteristics, imaging, and outcomes of patients with RCVS and COVID-19 identified at each participating site. RESULTS: Ten patients were identified, 7 women, ages 21 - 62 years. Risk factors included use of vasoconstrictive agents in 7 and history of migraine in 2. Presenting symptoms included thunderclap headache in 5 patients with recurrent headaches in 4. Eight were hypertensive on arrival to the hospital. Symptoms of COVID-19 included fever in 2, respiratory symptoms in 8, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 1. One patient did not have systemic COVID-19 symptoms. MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 cases, intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 2, acute ischemic stroke in 4, FLAIR hyperintensities in 2, and no abnormalities in 1 case. Neurovascular imaging showed focal segment irregularity and narrowing concerning for vasospasm of the left MCA in 4 cases and diffuse, multifocal narrowing of the intracranial vasculature in 6 cases. Outcomes varied, with 2 deaths, 2 remaining in the ICU, and 6 surviving to discharge with modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0 (n=3), 2 (n=2), and 3 (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: Our series suggests that patients with COVID-19 may be at risk for RCVS, particularly in the setting of additional risk factors such as exposure to vasoactive agents. There was variability in the symptoms and severity of COVID-19, clinical characteristics, abnormalities on imaging, and mRS scores. However, a larger study is needed to validate a causal relationship between RCVS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Vasoconstriction , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Syndrome , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vasospasm, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/therapy , Young Adult
5.
Neurol Clin ; 39(2): xvii-xix, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198202
6.
Neurol Clin ; 39(2): 671-687, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157630

ABSTRACT

Although minor neurologic complications of coronavirus disease 2019 are common, life-threatening neurologic emergencies are rare. Acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, venous sinus thrombosis, seizures, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome have been described. Hospitals have seen significant changes in the volume of patients presenting with neurologic emergencies. We review what has thus far been published about the intersection of coronavirus disease 2019 and neurologic emergencies with particular attention to cerebrovascular disease and seizure. Considerations in managing the acute presentations of these conditions in the context of the pandemic can serve as a model for management of other neurologic emergencies.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease/therapy , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Emergencies , Seizures/therapy , Humans
8.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. FINDINGS: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. INTERPRETATION: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105733, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has been known to predispose patients to both arterial and venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A few reports from the literature suggest that Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVSTs) may be a direct complication of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical and radiological presentation of COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed with CVST. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 reviewed from March 1, 2020 to November 8, 2020. We evaluated their clinical presentations, risk factors, clinical management, and outcome. We reviewed all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to November 13, 2020. RESULTS: There were 8 patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 during the study period at 7 out of 31 participating centers. Patients in our case series were mostly female (7/8, 87.5%). Most patients presented with non-specific symptoms such as headache (50%), fever (50%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (75%). Several patients presented with focal neurologic deficits (2/8, 25%) or decreased consciousness (2/8, 25%). D-dimer and inflammatory biomarkers were significantly elevated relative to reference ranges in patients with available laboratory data. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sites for acute CVST formation (6/8, 75%). Median time to onset of focal neurologic deficit from initial COVID-19 diagnosis was 3 days (interquartile range 0.75-3 days). Median time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVST radiologic diagnosis was 11 days (interquartile range 6-16.75 days). Mortality was low in this cohort (1/8 or 12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider the risk of acute CVST in patients positive for COVID-19, especially if neurological symptoms develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cranial Sinuses/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105412, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early studies suggest that acute cerebrovascular events may be common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may be associated with a high mortality rate. Most cerebrovascular events described have been ischemic strokes, but both intracerebral hemorrhage and rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have also been reported. The diagnosis of CVST can be elusive, with wide-ranging and nonspecific presenting symptoms that can include headache or altered sensorium alone. OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation, barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of CVST in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We abstracted data on all patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 from March 1 to August 9, 2020 at Boston Medical Center. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature and extracted all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020 through August 9, 2020 and included all studies with case descriptions. RESULTS: We describe the clinical features and management of CVST in 3 women with COVID-19 who developed CVST days to months after initial COVID-19 symptoms. Two patients presented with encephalopathy and without focal neurologic deficits, while one presented with visual symptoms. All patients were treated with intravenous hydration and anticoagulation. None suffered hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged home. We identified 12 other patients with CVST in the setting of COVID-19 via literature search. There was a female predominance (54.5%), most patients presented with altered sensorium (54.5%), and there was a high mortality rate (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: During this pandemic, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for CVST in patients with a recent history of COVID-19 presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms such as headache to provide expedient management and prevent complications. The limited data suggests that CVST in COVID-19 is more prevalent in females and may be associated with high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
12.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): 1664-1669, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the risk factors for and outcomes after myoclonus in a cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Multicenter case series. SETTING: Three tertiary care hospitals in Massachusetts, Georgia, and Virginia. PATIENTS: Eight patients with clinical myoclonus in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS & MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Outcomes in patients with myoclonus were variable, with one patient who died during the study period and five who were successfully extubated cognitively intact and without focal neurologic deficits. In five cases, the myoclonus completely resolved within 2 days of onset, while in three cases, it persisted for 10 days or longer. Seven patients experienced significant metabolic derangements, hypoxemia, or exposure to sedating medications that may have contributed to the development of myoclonus. One patient presented with encephalopathy and developed prolonged myoclonus in the absence of clear systemic provoking factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that myoclonus may be observed in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, even in the absence of hypoxia. This association warrants further evaluation in larger cohorts to determine whether the presence of myoclonus may aid in the assessment of disease severity, neurologic involvement, or prognostication.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Myoclonus/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Georgia , Humans , Hypoxia , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virginia
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105212, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688668

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Encephalopathy is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Although the encephalopathy is idiopathic in many cases, there are several published reports of patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019. OBJECTIVE: To describe the diverse presentations, risk factors, and outcomes of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We assessed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome at our institution from April 1 to June 24, 2020. We performed a literature search to capture all known published cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus 2019 at our institution during a 3-month period. One patient was treated with anakinra, an interleukin-1 inhibitor that may disrupt endothelial function. The second patient had an underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection. We found 13 total cases in our literature search, which reported modest blood pressure fluctuations and a range of risk factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. One patient was treated with tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 inhibitor that may have effects on endothelial function. All patients had an improvement in their neurological symptoms. Interval imaging, when available, showed radiographic improvement of brain lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 may include underlying infection or immunomodulatory agents with endothelial effects in conjunction with modest blood pressure fluctuations. We found that the neurological prognosis for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 infection is favorable. Recognition of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in this patient population is critical for prognostication and initiation of treatment, which may include cessation of potential offending agents and tight blood pressure control.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/virology , Blood Pressure , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/immunology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107335, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, with over 1.8 million confirmed cases worldwide to date. Preliminary reports suggest that the disease may present in diverse ways, including with neurological symptoms, but few published reports in the literature describe seizures in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to characterize the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of seizures in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series. Cases were identified through a review of admissions and consultations to the neurology and neurocritical care services between April 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020. SETTING: The study setting was in a tertiary care, safety-net hospital in Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS: Patients presenting with seizures and COVID-19 during the study period were included in the study. RESULTS: Seven patients met inclusion criteria (5 females, 71%). Patients ranged in age from 37 to 88 years (median: 75 years). Three patients had a prior history of well-controlled epilepsy (43%), while 4 patients had new-onset seizures, including 2 patients with prior history of remote stroke. Three patients had no preceding symptoms of COVID-19 prior to presentation (57%), and in all cases, seizures were the symptom that prompted presentation to the emergency department, regardless of prior symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Provoking factors for seizures in patients with COVID-19 may include metabolic factors, systemic illness, and possibly direct effects of the virus. In endemic areas with community spread of COVID-19, clinicians should be vigilant for the infection in patients who present with seizures, which may precede respiratory symptoms or prompt presentation to medical care. Early testing, isolation, and contact tracking of these patients can prevent further transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Boston , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105010, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548353

ABSTRACT

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients require frequent neurological examinations, neuroradiographic diagnostic testing and lengthy intensive care unit stay. Previously established SAH treatment protocols are impractical to impossible to adhere to in the current COVID-19 crisis due to the need for infection containment and shortage of critical care resources, including personal protective equipment (PPE). Centers need to adopt modified protocols to optimize SAH care and outcomes during this crisis. In this opinion piece, we assembled a multidisciplinary, multicenter team to develop and propose a modified guidance algorithm that optimizes SAH care and workflow in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance is to be adapted to the available resources of a local institution and does not replace clinical judgment when faced with an individual patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Virulence , Workflow
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104980, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to healthcare organizations worldwide. A steadily rising number of patients requiring intensive care, a large proportion from racial and ethnic minorities, demands creative solutions to provide high-quality care while ensuring healthcare worker safety in the face of limited resources. Boston Medical Center has been particularly affected due to the underserved patient population we care for and the increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We present protocol modifications developed to manage patients with acute ischemic stroke in a safe and effective manner while prioritizing judicious use of personal protective equipment and intensive care unit resources. CONCLUSION: We feel this information will benefit other organizations facing similar obstacles in caring for the most vulnerable patient populations during this ongoing public health crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Needs Assessment/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography, Interventional , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Boston , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Interventional/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Triage/organization & administration
17.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(2): 254-258, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, but little is known about its potential impact on patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We studied the clinical course of COVID-19 in five hospitalized patients with autoimmune MG (four with acetylcholine receptor antibodies, one with muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies) between April 1, 2020-April 30-2020. RESULTS: Two patients required intubation for hypoxemic respiratory failure, whereas one required significant supplemental oxygen. One patient with previously stable MG had myasthenic exacerbation. One patient treated with tocilizumab for COVID-19 was successfully extubated. Two patients were treated for MG with intravenous immunoglobulin without thromboembolic complications. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that the clinical course and outcomes in patients with MG and COVID-19 are highly variable. Further large studies are needed to define best practices and determinants of outcomes in this unique population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/immunology , Receptors, Cholinergic/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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