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1.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956443

ABSTRACT

Objective: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with multiorgan damage that occurs following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Research on clinical and laboratory findings, and imaging studies, aiming to predict the progression to severe disease state is limited. This study recruited patients with MIS-C who presented with mild or severe symptoms from a single center in Turkey and evaluated factors related to their symptoms. Methods: This retrospective study included 25 pediatric patients with mild and severe presentations of MIS-C. We explored the differences in demographic and clinical data on clinical severity to understand their possible diagnostic and prognostic values. Results: Patients with MIS-C had cardiovascular symptoms (68%), gastrointestinal symptoms (64%), dermatologic/mucocutaneous findings (64%), lung involvement (36%), and neurological symptoms (16.0%). About 45.1% of patients with MIS-C had manifestations that overlapped with Kawasaki disease. Eleven patients (44%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and one (4%) patient died. Grouping based on clinical severity did not differ statistically in terms of gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and duration of hospital stay. Procalcitonin and ferritin levels correlated with disease severity. The receiver operating characteristic curve for D-dimer gave the highest value of area under the curve, among other biomarkers. The cutoff value for D-dimer was determined as more than 6780. Conclusions: Although COVID-19 is usually mild in children, some can be severely affected, and clinical severity in MIS-C can differ from mild to severe multisystem involvement. This study shows that procalcitonin, ferritin, and D-dimer levels may give us information about disease severity.

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):191-192, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358821

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 runs a severe disease associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in a subset of patients, and a hyperinflammatory response developing in the second week contributes to the worse outcome. Inflammatory features are mostly compatible with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) observed in other viral infections despite resulting in milder changes. Early detection and treatment of MAS may be associated with a better outcome. However, available criteria for MAS associated with other causes have not been helpful. Objectives: To identify distinct features of MAS associated with COVID-19 using a large database enabling to assess of dynamic changes. Methods: PCR-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients followed between March and September 2020 constituted the discovery set. Patients considered to have findings of MAS by experienced physicians and given anakinra or tocilizumab were classified as the MAS group and the remaining patients as the non-MAS group. The MAS group was then re-grouped as the cases with exact-MAS and borderline-MAS cases by the study group. Clinical and laboratory data including the Ct values of the PCR test were obtained from the database, and dynamic changes were evaluated especially for the first 14 days of the hospitalization. The second set of 162 patients followed between September-December 2020 were used as the replication group to test the preliminary criteria. In the second set, hospitalization rules were changed, and all patients required oxygen support and received dexamethasone 6mg/day or equivalent glucocorticoids. Daily changes were calculated for the laboratory items in MAS, borderline, and non-MAS groups to see the days differentiating the groups, and ROC curves and lower and upper limits (10-90%) of the selected parameters were calculated to determine the cutoff values. Results: A total of 769 PCR-confirmed hospitalized patients were analysed, and 77 of them were classified as MAS and 83 as borderline MAS patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline viral loads of MAS patients compared to the non-MAS group according to the Ct values. Daily dynamic changes in the MAS group differed from the non-MAS group especially around the 6th day of hospitalization, and more than a twofold increase in ferritin and a 1.5-fold increase in D-dimer levels compared to the baseline values help to define the MAS group. Twelve items selected for the criteria are given in Table 1 below. The total score of 45 provided 79.6% sensitivity for the MAS (including borderline cases) and 81.3% specificity around days 5 and 6 in the discovery set, and a score of 60 increased the specificity to 94.9% despite a decrease in sensitivity to 40.8%. The same set provided a similar sensitivity (80.3%) in the replication, but a lower specificity (47.4-66% on days 6 to 9) due to a group of control patients with findings of MAS possibly masked by glucocorticoids. Conclusion: This study defined a set of preliminary criteria using the most relevant items of MAS according to the dynamic changes in the parameters in a group of COVID-19 patients. A score of 45 would be helpful to define a possible MAS group with reasonable sensitivity and specificity to start necessary treatments as early as possible.

4.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):1359, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358651

ABSTRACT

Background: Infection is a remarkable cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. Objectives: We aimed to determine the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in our patients with SLE and the factors affecting this course Methods: SLE patients (2012 SLICC criteria) diagnosed with COVID-19 infection by a positive PCR test and/or typical findings of lung involvement in CT (computed tomography) imaging were included. Data regarding cumulative clinical and laboratory characteristics, histopathology results, autoantibody profiles, immunsuppressives and damage (SLICC damage index/SDI)) were retrieved from the existing database and revised. SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI-2K) was determined at the time of infection. Results: Sixteen SLE patients with COVID-19 infection were identified. Most (87.5%) of these patients were female. Seventy % (n=11) had lupus nephritis. Twenty-five % had thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome. PCR was positive in 70% (n=11) of the patients. Pulmonary parenchymal findings compatible with COVID-19 were observed in 56% (n=9) of those patients. Regarding complaints upon admission, 50% (n=8) had fever, 44% (n=7) cough, 44% (n=7) dyspnea, 19% (n=3) myalgia, 12.5% (n=2) headache, 12.5% (n=2) nausea /vomiting, 6% (n=1) diarrhea, and 6 % (n=1) had anosmia. Eight patients were hospitalized. Six of these patients needed oxygen therapy via nasal cannula. None needed a follow-up in the intensive care unit. The mean hospitalization duration was 14 ± 5 (8-25) days. Regarding disease activity at the time of infection, 9 had inactive disease with a SLEDAI-2K score of 0 whilst in 5 patients SLEDA-2K score was ≥4. The mean SLEDAI-2K score at the time of infection was 1.7 ± 2.3 (0-6). System/ organwise, 1 patient with chronic thrombocytopenia presented with a worsening platelet count accompanied by serologic activity. This patient was a non-adherent to treatment who had stopped taking mycophenolic acid months before COVID19. Three patients 2 of whom had proliferative nephritis experienced nephritic flares.1 patient who had a history of cutaneous lupus and was in remission presented with oral ulcer, leukopenia and hypocomplementemia during infection. Of 16 patients, 7 had system damage at the time of infection. The mean SDI score of the patients was 1.4±1.8. Comparison of patients with and without damage revealed no significant differences in disease activity, symptoms associated with COVID, in the need for hospitalization, hospitalization duration, and the requirement for oxygen therapy. However,CT findings compatible with COVID19, were more common in patients with damage (87% vs.33%,p=0.04) and their mean CRP levels were higher at diagnosis (65 ± 47 vs.22 ± 48 mg/l;p=0.032). All patients received similar treatment for COVID-19 except active patients who required high dose steroids (2 with active renal, 1 with thrombocytopenia and 1 with oral ulcer, leukopenia and hypocomplementemia).The patient with thrombocytopenia also received intravenous immunoglobulin and 1 with cutaneous active disease received tocilizumab as she developed macrophage activation syndrome. Six patients (37.5%) had received rituximab (RTX) in the last 6 months before COVID. No significant difference, in terms of hospitalization and need for oxygen therapy due to COVID19 was found between patients who had received RTX vs who had not. No hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in patients who received RTX despite lower levels of IgG (998 ± 184 vs 1481± 51 mg/dl, p=0.02) Conclusion: Although half of the patients in our series of COVID19 infected SLE patients required hospitalization, there were no mortalities. More patients with damage (none pulmonary) displayed CT findings compatible with COVID19 and further follow up will reveal whether they will suffer from fibrotic lung disease. Patients can experience disease flares during COVID. But it is also important to consider that some manifestations such as thrombocytopenia may also be a sign of severe infection. Immunosupressive agents may not have a negative impact on the course of infection.

5.
Southern Clinics of Istanbul Eurasia ; 31(Suppl. 1):48-51, 2020.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1264699

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 from Wuhan-China. The disease has spread over the World in a few months. On 11 March 2020, it was declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 usually causes mild upper respiratory disease or pneumonia. In general, COVID-19 seems to be a less aggressive disease in children compared to adults. Ninety percent of pediatric cases have asymptomatic, mild or moderate disease. Despite several published pediatric reports, the epidemiological, clinical patterns and the treatment approach in pediatric patients with COVID-19 are still uncertain. In this review, we aimed to summarize the epidemiology, clinical course and the diagnosis of COVID-19 in children.

6.
Guncel Pediatri ; 19(1):9-14, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1210303

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Vitamin D is known as a vitamin but also it acts as a prohormone and has many functions. The aim of this study is to investigate the vitamin D levels in pediatric patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary education and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey during the period of Marcht o April 2020. Children diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 infection were included in the study. Demographic, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded from patient charts retrospectively. All patients investigated for vitamin D levels. Control group consists of healthy children admitted to pediatric outpatient units for routine check-up in the same season.Thirty children with COVID-19 and 82 healthy children included in this study were compared due to 25-OH vitamin D levels. Results: The median age of COVID-19 positive patients was 11.8 (1.8-17.6) years and the median age of control group was 12.7 (1-16.4) years old. There were 15 (50%) females and 15 (50%) males in infected group and there were 39 (47.5%) females and 43 (52.5%) males control group. Age and gender did not differ among the groups. Median vitamin D level in COVID-19 positive group was 8.9 ng/ml (342 ng/ml) and 18.5 ng/ml (9-40.7 ng/ml) in control group. We detected significantly lower vitamin D values in COVID19(+) group when compared with control group (p<0.001). CT was performed 19 patients in COVID-19 positive group and viral pneumonia was detected in 12(63%) of 19. pneumonia (+) group a 17.4-years-old female patient and a 13.1-years-old male patient had low phosphorus levels by age (2.2 and 2.4 mg/dl). Both of them needed high flow oxygen therapy. None of the other cases needed oxygen therapy. Conclusions: This is the first study to date has measured vitamin D levels in children with COVID-19 in Turkey. We detected significantly lower vitamin D values in COVID-19(+) hospitalized children. © 2021, Galenos. All rights reserved.

7.
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi ; 14(4):e175-e180, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1110626

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the early stages of any epidemic caused by new emerging pathogens healthcare personnel is subject to a great risk. Pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, proved to be no exception. Many healthcare workers died in the early stages of pandemic due to inadequate precautions and insufficient protection. It is essential to protect and maintain the safety of healthcare personnel for the confinement of pandemic as well as continuity of qualified healthcare services which is already under strain. Educating healthcare personnel on appropiate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is as essential as procuring them. Material and Methods: A survey is conducted on 4927 healthcare personnel working solely with pediatric patients from 32 different centers. Education given on PPE usage were questioned and analyzed depending on age, sex, occupation and region. Results: Among four thousand nine hundred twelve healthcare personnel from 32 different centers 91% (n= 4457) received education on PPE usage. Of those who received education only 36% was given both theoretical and applied education. Although there was no differences among different occupation groups, receiving education depended on regions. Conclusion: It is essential to educate healthcare personnel appropiately nationwidely for the continuity of qualified healthcare services during the pandemic.

8.
Journal of Pediatric Infection ; 14(4):195-200, 2020.
Article in Turkish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1067892

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the early stages of any epidemic caused by new emerging pathogens healthcare personnel is subject to a great risk. Pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, proved to be no exception. Many healthcare workers died in the early stages of pandemic due to inadequate precautions and insufficient protection. It is essential to protect and maintain the safety of healthcare personnel for the confinement of pandemic as well as continuity of qualified healthcare services which is already under strain. Educating healthcare personnel on appropiate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is as essential as procuring them. Material and Methods: A survey is conducted on 4927 healthcare personnel working solely with pediatric patients from 32 different centers. Education given on PPE usage were questioned and analyzed depending on age, sex, occupation and region. Results: Among four thousand nine hundred twelve healthcare personnel from 32 different centers 91% (n=4457) received education on PPE usage. Of those who received education only 36% was given both theoretical and applied education. Although there was no differences among different occupation groups, receiving education depended on regions. Conclusion: It is essential to educate healthcare personnel appropiately nationwidely for the continuity of qualified healthcare services during the pandemic.

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