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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; 22(3): 103259, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291252

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) can affect women and men during fertile age, therefore reproductive health is a priority issue in rheumatology. Many topics need to be considered during preconception counselling: fertility, the impact of disease-related factors on pregnancy outcomes, the influence of pregnancy on disease activity, the compatibility of medications with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Risk stratification and individualized treatment approach elaborated by a multidisciplinary team minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). Research has been focused on identifying biomarkers that can be predictive of APO. Specifically, preeclampsia and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy tend to develop more frequently in women with ARD. Placental insufficiency can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and small-for-gestational age newborns. Such APO have been shown to be associated with maternal disease activity in different ARD. Therefore, a key message to be addressed to the woman wishing for a pregnancy and to her family is that treatment with compatible drugs is the best way to ensure maternal and fetal wellbeing. An increasing number of medications have entered the management of ARD, but data about their use in pregnancy and lactation are scarce. More information is needed for most biologic drugs and their biosimilars, and for the so-called small molecules, while there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of TNF inhibitors if needed for keeping maternal disease under control. Other issues related to the reproductive journey have emerged as "unmet needs", such as sexual dysfunction, contraception, medically assisted reproduction techniques, long-term outcome of children, and they will be addressed in this review paper. Collaborative research has been instrumental to reach current knowledge and the future will bring novel insights thanks to pregnancy registries and prospective studies that have been established in several Countries and to their joint efforts in merging data.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Rheumatic Diseases , Male , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reproductive Health , Placenta , Pregnancy Outcome , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
2.
J Pers Med ; 13(4)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, making vaccination during pregnancy critical for mother-neonate dyads. Few data, often with an unrepresentative sample size, are available on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated response. Here, we evaluated anti-S antibody and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production elicited by SARS-CoV-2 immunization in maternal and neonatal plasma. Pregnant women (n = 230) were prospectively enrolled and classified as unvaccinated (n = 103) and vaccinated (n = 127); after serological screening for previous infections, assays were performed on 126 dyads, 15 mothers and 17 newborns. Positive anti-S antibodies were found in most of the vaccinated subjects, regardless of timespan between immunization and delivery (range: 7-391 days). A total of 89 of 92 vaccinated women showed a broad response to COVID-19 immunization and highly effective placental transfer, as attested by anti-S positive rates (maternal = 96.7%, cord = 96.6%). Most of our subjects had indeterminate results in an IGRA assay, preventing a conclusive evaluation of IFN-γ production. Indeed, pregnancy-related hormonal changes may influence T-cell response with an impact on IFN-γ production. Positive pregnancy and perinatal outcomes reinforce the evidence that the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunization is effective and well-tolerated in pregnant women and also protective for the fetus/neonate, even though it was not possible to define the related IFN-γ production and role.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 124: 159-163, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is now well established that in utero vertical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can occur during the late third trimester. However, little is known about other gestational ages. Recently, an increased risk of early miscarriage was reported in pregnant women who were SARS-CoV-2-positive. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the putative SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: This is an observational study on pregnant women who were SARS-CoV-2-positive during the first trimester. Fetal and syncytiotrophoblastic specimens were collected by hysterosuction from 17 pregnant women who were SARS-CoV-2-positive and voluntarily terminated the pregnancy between week 8 and 12. We investigated the viral vertical transmission using SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the fetus and syncytiotrophoblast by two different techniques. RESULTS: The results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission is indeed possible during the first trimester in asymptomatic women. Although maternal viremia was never detected, roughly 30% of the fetuses and 17% of the syncytiotrophoblasts were found to be SARS-CoV-2-positive. CONCLUSION: Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 can spread to the fetus through the syncytiotrophoblast. Concerningly, this happens in asymptomatic pregnant women as well. Possible long-term detrimental consequences on fetal development still need to be assessed. This should be taken into consideration in the management of pregnant women by implementing preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Trimester, First , RNA, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Outcome
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997870

ABSTRACT

Italy has been one of the hardest hit countries in the European Union since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and Regione Lombardia (RL) has reported the largest number of cases in the country. This population-based retrospective study analyzed RL records of 122,942 pregnant women to describe SARS-CoV-2 vaccination uptake in the pregnant population, to compare pregnant women vaccine uptake vs. women of childbearing age and to evaluate the impact of vaccination status in pregnant women on admissions to intensive care units during 2021. Vaccination uptake according to citizenship and educational level and the comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed by Z test. A logistic regression was performed to compare age groups. Out of 122,942 pregnant women, 79.9% were vaccinated at the end of 2021. The vaccine uptake rate was significantly lower in pregnant versus non-pregnant women but increased after the issuing of official recommendations. Vaccine administration was significantly higher among pregnant women with Italian citizenship and with a high level of education in all trimesters. In conclusion, the role of official recommendations with explicit communication about the importance and safety of vaccination in pregnancy is critical to obtain trust and acceptance among pregnant women.

6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(3): 488.e1-488.e17, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 in pregnancy on maternal outcomes and its association with preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus have been reported; however, a detailed understanding of the effects of maternal positivity, delivery mode, and perinatal practices on fetal and neonatal outcomes is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on fetal and neonatal outcomes and the role of mode of delivery, breastfeeding, and early neonatal care practices on the risk of mother-to-child transmission. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study that took place from March 2020 to March 2021, involving 43 institutions in 18 countries, 2 unmatched, consecutive, unexposed women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each infected woman was identified, at any stage of pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed up until hospital discharge. COVID-19 in pregnancy was determined by laboratory confirmation and/or radiological pulmonary findings or ≥2 predefined COVID-19 symptoms. The outcome measures were indices of neonatal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, neonatal positivity and its correlation with mode of delivery, breastfeeding, and hospital neonatal care practices. RESULTS: A total of 586 neonates born to women with COVID-19 diagnosis and 1535 neonates born to women without COVID-19 diagnosis were enrolled. Women with COVID-19 diagnosis had a higher rate of cesarean delivery (52.8% vs 38.5% for those without COVID-19 diagnosis, P<.01) and pregnancy-related complications, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and fetal distress (all with P<.001), than women without COVID-19 diagnosis. Maternal diagnosis of COVID-19 carried an increased rate of preterm birth (P≤.001) and lower neonatal weight (P≤.001), length, and head circumference at birth. In mothers with COVID-19 diagnosis, the length of in utero exposure was significantly correlated to the risk of the neonate testing positive (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-9.4 for length of in utero exposure >14 days). Among neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 diagnosis, birth via cesarean delivery was a risk factor for testing positive for COVID-19 (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.7), even when severity of maternal conditions was considered and after multivariable logistic analysis. In the subgroup of neonates born to women with COVID-19 diagnosis, the outcomes worsened when the neonate also tested positive, with higher rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission, fever, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and death, even after adjusting for prematurity. Breastfeeding by mothers with COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital neonatal care practices, including immediate skin-to-skin contact and rooming-in, were not associated with an increased risk of newborn positivity. CONCLUSION: In this multinational cohort study, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with increased maternal and neonatal complications. Cesarean delivery was significantly associated with newborn COVID-19 diagnosis. Vaginal delivery should be considered the safest mode of delivery if obstetrical and health conditions allow it. Mother-to-child skin-to-skin contact, rooming-in, and direct breastfeeding were not risk factors for newborn COVID-19 diagnosis, thus well-established best practices can be continued among women with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology
7.
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita ; 57(4):272-285, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1733123

ABSTRACT

Introduction. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women during the first pandemic wave in Italy, and to describe COVID-19 disease characteristics and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Materials and methods. National population-based prospective cohort study collecting information on women with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, confirmed within 7 days from hospital admission. Results. The national SARS-CoV-2 rate was 6.04 per 1,000 births (95% CI 5.62-6.49) among pregnant women and 7.54 (95% CI 7.47-7.61) among women in reproductive age. 72.1% of the cohort developed mild COVID-19 disease without pneumonia nor need for ventilatory support. Severe disease was significantly associated with women’s previous comorbidities (OR 2.55;95% CI 0.98-6.90), obesity (OR 4.76;95% CI 1.79-12.66) and citizenship from High Migration Pressure Countries (OR 3.43;95% CI 1.27-9.25). Conclusions. During the first pandemic wave in Italy, the SARS-CoV-2 rate among pregnant women was lower compared to that detected among women of reproductive age, and risks of severe COVID-19 disease and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes were rare.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827889, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731779

ABSTRACT

It is well established that pregnancy induces deep changes in the immune system. This is part of the physiological adaptation of the female organism to the pregnancy and the immunological tolerance toward the fetus. Indeed, over the three trimesters, the suppressive T regulatory lymphocytes are progressively more represented, while the expression of co-stimulatory molecules decreases overtime. Such adaptations relate to an increased risk of infections and progression to severe disease in pregnant women, potentially resulting in an altered generation of long-lived specific immunological memory of infection contracted during pregnancy. How potent is the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in infected pregnant women and how long the specific SARS-CoV-2 immunity might last need to be urgently addressed, especially considering the current vaccinal campaign. To address these questions, we analyzed the long-term immunological response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women from delivery to a six-months follow-up. In particular, we investigated the specific antibody production, T cell memory subsets, and inflammation profile. Results show that 80% developed an anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response, comparable with the general population. While IgG were present only in 50% of the asymptomatic subjects, the antibody production was elicited by infection in all the mild-to-critical patients. The specific T-cell memory subsets rebalanced over-time, and the pro-inflammatory profile triggered by specific SARS-CoV-2 stimulation faded away. These results shed light on SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity in pregnant women; understanding the immunological dynamics of the immune system in response to SARS-CoV-2 is essential for defining proper obstetric management of pregnant women and fine tune gender-specific vaccinal plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(1): 74.e1-74.e16, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among nonpregnant individuals, diabetes mellitus and high body mass index increase the risk of COVID-19 and its severity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether diabetes mellitus and high body mass index are risk factors for COVID-19 in pregnancy and whether gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: INTERCOVID was a multinational study conducted between March 2020 and February 2021 in 43 institutions from 18 countries, enrolling 2184 pregnant women aged ≥18 years; a total of 2071 women were included in the analyses. For each woman diagnosed with COVID-19, 2 nondiagnosed women delivering or initiating antenatal care at the same institution were also enrolled. The main exposures were preexisting diabetes mellitus, high body mass index (overweight or obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), and gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. The main outcome was a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 based on a real-time polymerase chain reaction test, antigen test, antibody test, radiological pulmonary findings, or ≥2 predefined COVID-19 symptoms at any time during pregnancy or delivery. Relationships of exposures and COVID-19 diagnosis were assessed using generalized linear models with a Poisson distribution and log link function, with robust standard errors to account for model misspecification. Furthermore, we conducted sensitivity analyses: (1) restricted to those with a real-time polymerase chain reaction test or an antigen test in the last week of pregnancy, (2) restricted to those with a real-time polymerase chain reaction test or an antigen test during the entire pregnancy, (3) generating values for missing data using multiple imputation, and (4) analyses controlling for month of enrollment. In addition, among women who were diagnosed with COVID-19, we examined whether having gestational diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus, or high body mass index increased the risk of having symptomatic vs asymptomatic COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 was associated with preexisting diabetes mellitus (risk ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-2.42), overweight or obesity (risk ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.37), and gestational diabetes mellitus (risk ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.46). The gestational diabetes mellitus association was specifically among women requiring insulin, whether they were of normal weight (risk ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.01) or overweight or obese (risk ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.45). A somewhat stronger association with COVID-19 diagnosis was observed among women with preexisting diabetes mellitus, whether they were of normal weight (risk ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.17) or overweight or obese (risk ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.82-2.97). When the sample was restricted to those with a real-time polymerase chain reaction test or an antigen test in the week before delivery or during the entire pregnancy, including missing variables using imputation or controlling for month of enrollment, the observed associations were comparable. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity were risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis in pregnancy, and insulin-dependent gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with the disease. Therefore, it is essential that women with these comorbidities are vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes, Gestational , Obesity, Maternal , Adiposity , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Insulin/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438475

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. A placental role in protecting the fetus from SARS-CoV-2 infection has been documented. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how the placenta is affected in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we assessed placental mitochondrial (mt) and oxidative features in COVID-19 and healthy mothers. mtDNA levels, DNA oxidative damage, expression levels of genes involved in antioxidant defenses, mitochondrial dynamics and respiratory chain subunits were investigated in placentas from singleton pregnancies of 30 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the third trimester (12 asymptomatic, 18 symptomatic) and 16 controls. mtDNA levels decreased in COVID-19 placentas vs. controls and inversely correlated with DNA oxidative damage, which increased in the symptomatic group. Antioxidant gene expressions decreased in SARS-CoV-2 mothers (CAT, GSS). Symptomatic cases also showed a lower expression of respiratory chain (NDUFA9, SDHA, COX4I1) and mt dynamics (DNM1L, FIS1) genes. Alterations in placental mitochondrial features and oxidative balance in COVID-19-affected mothers might be due to the impaired intrauterine environment, generated by systemic viral effects, leading to a negative vicious circle that worsens placental oxidative stress and mitochondrial efficiency. This likely causes cell homeostasis dysregulations, raising the potential of possible long-term effects.

12.
Pharmacol Res ; 171: 105786, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322311

ABSTRACT

Women of childbearing age are largely affected by several autoimmune disorders (the estimates range between 1.5 and 10 per 10,000). The increasing number of effective biological agents has dramatically revolutionized the treatment of these clinical conditions, ameliorating the patient's quality of life. The use of these agents by women during pregnancy is growing to ensure the disease activity control and avoid adverse health outcomes. However, for many newer biological agents, the degree of information concerning their use in pregnancy is often incomplete to perform a conclusive risk assessment on fetal and maternal health given the exclusion of this specific population from pharmacological clinical trials. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has confirmed the unacceptable inequities of pharmacological research and medical treatment for pregnant and lactating women, exacerbating the need for filling the gaps of quantitative and qualitative pharmacology data in this sensitive population. ere we summarize (i) what is already known about safety and effectiveness of biological agents in this understudied population (with specific focus on pregnancy-related health outcomes), and what we are going to learn from the on-going studies among pregnant women treated with biological agents; (ii) the methodological and ethical considerations that characterize the pharmacological research in pregnancy, also discussing emerging evidence on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/immunology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
13.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314589

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs are gene expression regulators associated with several human pathologies, including those generated by viral infections. Their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 has been investigated and reviewed in many informative studies; however, a thorough miRNA outline in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women (SIPW), at both systemic and placental levels, is missing. To fill this gap, blood and placenta biopsies collected at delivery from 15 asymptomatic SIPW were immediately analysed for: miRNA expression (n = 84) (QPCR array), antiviral/immune mRNA target expression (n = 74) (QGene) and cytokine/chemokines production (n = 27) (Multiplex ELISA). By comparing these results with those obtained from six uninfected pregnant women (UPW), we observed that, following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the transcriptomic profile of pregnant women is significantly altered in different anatomical districts, even in the absence of clinical symptoms and vertical transmission. This characteristic combination of miRNA and antiviral/immune factors seems to control both the infection and the dysfunctional immune reaction, thus representing a positive correlate of protection and a potential therapeutic target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , MicroRNAs/analysis , MicroRNAs/blood , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Young Adult
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(3): 289.e1-289.e17, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the suggested link between COVID-19 during pregnancy and preeclampsia is an independent association or if these are caused by common risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify any independent association between COVID-19 during pregnancy and preeclampsia and to determine the effect of these variables on maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: This was a large, longitudinal, prospective, unmatched diagnosed and not-diagnosed observational study assessing the effect of COVID-19 during pregnancy on mothers and neonates. Two consecutive not-diagnosed women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each diagnosed woman was identified, at any stage during pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed until hospital discharge using the standardized INTERGROWTH-21st protocols and electronic data management system. A total of 43 institutions in 18 countries contributed to the study sample. The independent association between the 2 entities was quantified with the risk factors known to be associated with preeclampsia analyzed in each group. The outcomes were compared among women with COVID-19 alone, preeclampsia alone, both conditions, and those without either of the 2 conditions. RESULTS: We enrolled 2184 pregnant women; of these, 725 (33.2%) were enrolled in the COVID-19 diagnosed and 1459 (66.8%) in the COVID-19 not-diagnosed groups. Of these women, 123 had preeclampsia of which 59 of 725 (8.1%) were in the COVID-19 diagnosed group and 64 of 1459 (4.4%) were in the not-diagnosed group (risk ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.61). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and conditions associated with both COVID-19 and preeclampsia, the risk ratio for preeclampsia remained significant among all women (risk ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.52) and nulliparous women specifically (risk ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-3.05). There was a trend but no statistical significance among parous women (risk ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.73). The risk ratio for preterm birth for all women diagnosed with COVID-19 and preeclampsia was 4.05 (95% confidence interval, 2.99-5.49) and 6.26 (95% confidence interval, 4.35-9.00) for nulliparous women. Compared with women with neither condition diagnosed, the composite adverse perinatal outcome showed a stepwise increase in the risk ratio for COVID-19 without preeclampsia, preeclampsia without COVID-19, and COVID-19 with preeclampsia (risk ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-2.86; risk ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.45; and risk ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-4.82, respectively). Similar findings were found for the composite adverse maternal outcome with risk ratios of 1.76 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.35), 2.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.57), and 2.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.66-4.63). The association between COVID-19 and gestational hypertension and the direction of the effects on preterm birth and adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, were similar to preeclampsia, but confined to nulliparous women with lower risk ratios. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 during pregnancy is strongly associated with preeclampsia, especially among nulliparous women. This association is independent of any risk factors and preexisting conditions. COVID-19 severity does not seem to be a factor in this association. Both conditions are associated independently of and in an additive fashion with preterm birth, severe perinatal morbidity and mortality, and adverse maternal outcomes. Women with preeclampsia should be considered a particularly vulnerable group with regard to the risks posed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/virology , Pregnancy Complications/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/virology , Longitudinal Studies , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Placenta ; 110: 9-15, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause an abnormal development of the placenta, thus influencing maternal and fetal outcomes. Few studies have reported data on placental morphology and histology in infected pregnant patients, although not compared with carefully matched controls. The aim of this study is to compare placental morphology and histology of pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2 to non-infected controls. METHODS: This is a prospective multicenter case-control study on 64 pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2 who delivered at term or late-preterm. Data were collected about pregnancy course, maternal and fetal outcomes, placental biometry and macro- and microscopical morphology. 64 not-infected women were identified as controls, matched by age, body mass index and ethnicity. RESULTS: Cases and controls had similar fetal and maternal outcomes. No significant differences were observed in placental macro- or microscopical morphology between the two groups. In the cases treated with antivirals, chloroquine, LMWH or antibiotics, placentas were heavier but not more efficient than the non-treated, since the fetal/placental weight ratio did not differ. Moreover, delayed villous maturation was more frequent in treated women, although not significantly. The newborns whose mothers received oxygen therapy as treatment had higher levels of umbilical cord pO2 at birth. DISCUSSION: In this prospective case-control study, SARS-CoV-2 infection during the third trimester did not influence placental histological pattern. Pharmacological and oxygen therapy administered to women affected by this viral infection could impact maternal and fetal outcomes and be associated to placental histological alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/drug effects , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
16.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(8): 817-826, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196368

ABSTRACT

Importance: Detailed information about the association of COVID-19 with outcomes in pregnant individuals compared with not-infected pregnant individuals is much needed. Objective: To evaluate the risks associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with not-infected, concomitant pregnant individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study that took place from March to October 2020, involving 43 institutions in 18 countries, 2 unmatched, consecutive, not-infected women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each infected woman was identified, at any stage of pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed up until hospital discharge. Exposures: COVID-19 in pregnancy determined by laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 and/or radiological pulmonary findings or 2 or more predefined COVID-19 symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measures were indices of (maternal and severe neonatal/perinatal) morbidity and mortality; the individual components of these indices were secondary outcomes. Models for these outcomes were adjusted for country, month entering study, maternal age, and history of morbidity. Results: A total of 706 pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis and 1424 pregnant women without COVID-19 diagnosis were enrolled, all with broadly similar demographic characteristics (mean [SD] age, 30.2 [6.1] years). Overweight early in pregnancy occurred in 323 women (48.6%) with COVID-19 diagnosis and 554 women (40.2%) without. Women with COVID-19 diagnosis were at higher risk for preeclampsia/eclampsia (relative risk [RR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.27-2.43), severe infections (RR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.63-7.01), intensive care unit admission (RR, 5.04; 95% CI, 3.13-8.10), maternal mortality (RR, 22.3; 95% CI, 2.88-172), preterm birth (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30-1.94), medically indicated preterm birth (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.56-2.51), severe neonatal morbidity index (RR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.69-4.18), and severe perinatal morbidity and mortality index (RR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.66-2.75). Fever and shortness of breath for any duration was associated with increased risk of severe maternal complications (RR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.92-3.40) and neonatal complications (RR, 4.97; 95% CI, 2.11-11.69). Asymptomatic women with COVID-19 diagnosis remained at higher risk only for maternal morbidity (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54) and preeclampsia (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.63). Among women who tested positive (98.1% by real-time polymerase chain reaction), 54 (13%) of their neonates tested positive. Cesarean delivery (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.18-3.91) but not breastfeeding (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85) was associated with increased risk for neonatal test positivity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multinational cohort study, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with consistent and substantial increases in severe maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal complications when pregnant women with and without COVID-19 diagnosis were compared. The findings should alert pregnant individuals and clinicians to implement strictly all the recommended COVID-19 preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Morbidity/trends , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 45, 2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105727

ABSTRACT

The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (SIMP), the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (SIGO), the Italian Association of Hospital Obstetricians-Gynecologists (AOGOI) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) have made an ad hoc consensus statement. Currently, knowledge regarding the administration of COVID-19 vaccine to the breastfeeding mother is limited. Nevertheless, as health benefits of breastfeeding are well demonstrated and since biological plausibility suggests that the health risk for the nursed infant is unlikely, Italian scientific societies conclude that COVID-19 vaccination is compatible with breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Consensus , Female , Humans , Italy , Societies, Medical
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5128, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851277

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection during gestation remains unclear. Here, we analyse the viral genome on maternal and newborns nasopharyngeal swabs, vaginal swabs, maternal and umbilical cord plasma, placenta and umbilical cord biopsies, amniotic fluids and milk from 31 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we also test specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in placentas, and in maternal and umbilical cord plasma. We detect SARS-CoV-2 genome in one umbilical cord blood and in two at-term placentas, in one vaginal mucosa and in one milk specimen. Furthermore, we report the presence of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in one umbilical cord blood and in one milk specimen. Finally, in the three documented cases of vertical transmission, SARS-CoV-2 infection was accompanied by a strong inflammatory response. Together, these data support the hypothesis that in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, while low, is possible. These results might help defining proper obstetric management of COVID-19 pregnant women, or putative indications for mode and timing of delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239173, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the performance of an extended questionnaire in identifying cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among obstetric patients. 2. To evaluate the rate of infection among healthcare workers involved in women's care. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of obstetric patients admitted to MBBM Foundation and Buzzi Hospital (Lombardy, Northern Italy) from March 16th to May 22nd, 2020. Women were screened on admission by a questionnaire investigating major and minor symptoms of infection and high-risk contacts in the last 14 days. SARS-CoV-2 assessment was performed by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. Till April 7th, a targeted SARS-CoV-2 testing triggered by a positive questionnaire was used; from April 8th, a universal testing approach was implemented. RESULTS: There were 1,177 women screened by the questionnaire, which yielded a positive result in 130 (11.0%) cases. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 865 (73.5%) patients, identifying 51 (5.9%) infections. During the first period, there were 29 infected mothers, 4 (13.8%) of whom had a negative questionnaire. After universal testing implementation, there were 22 (3%, 95% CI 1.94% - 4.04%) infected mothers, 13 (59.1%) of whom had a negative questionnaire; rate of infection among asymptomatic women was 1.9%. Six of the 17 SARS-CoV-2-positive women with a negative questionnaire reported symptoms more than 14 but within 30 days before admission. Isolated olfactory or taste disorders were identified in 15.7% of infected patients. Rate of infection among healthcare workers was 5.8%. CONCLUSIONS: An exhaustive triage questionnaire can effectively discriminate women at low risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of a targeted and a universal viral testing approach. In 15.7% of infected women, correct classification as a suspected case of infection was due to investigation of olfactory and taste disorders. Extension of the assessed time-frame to 30 days may be worth considering to increase the questionnaire's performance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Triage
20.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(12): 2417-2419, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal testing has been suggested as a useful strategy for a safe exit from the total lockdown, without recurrence of COVID-19 epidemic, delivering women being considered a sentinel population. Further universal testing for pregnant women may be useful in order to define appropriate access to COVID19 areas, dedicated neonatal care, and personal protective equipment. METHODS: During the period 10-26 April, all consecutive women admitted for delivery at the Maternity Hospitals of the city of Milan and in six provinces of Lombardy: Brescia, Como, Lecco Monza, Pavia, and Sondrio. areas were tested with nasopharyngeal swabs.Results and conclusion: Out of 1566 women, 49 were tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 (3.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.3-4.0). This value is largely higher than Heath Authorities estimate. Of tested positive women, 22 (44.9%) had symptoms or reported close contacts with positive patients, that is were found at risk by the itemized questionnaire. In conclusion, routine estimate of frequency of positivity among delivering women can be consider a useful methods to monitor positivity at least in females in their fertile ages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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