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Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513


OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16726, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841180


COVID-19 is commonly mild and self-limiting, but in a considerable portion of patients the disease is severe and fatal. Determining which patients are at high risk of severe illness or mortality is essential for appropriate clinical decision making. We propose a novel severity score specifically for COVID-19 to help predict disease severity and mortality. 4711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. We derived a risk model using the first half of the cohort (n = 2355 patients) by logistic regression and bootstrapping methods. The discriminative power of the risk model was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). The severity score was validated in a second half of 2356 patients. Mortality incidence was 26.4% in the derivation cohort and 22.4% in the validation cohort. A COVID-19 severity score ranging from 0 to 10, consisting of age, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, blood urea nitrogen, C-Reactive protein, and the international normalized ratio was developed. A ROC curve analysis was performed in the derivation cohort achieved an AUC of 0.824 (95% CI 0.814-0.851) and an AUC of 0.798 (95% CI 0.789-0.818) in the validation cohort. Furthermore, based on the risk categorization the probability of mortality was 11.8%, 39% and 78% for patient with low (0-3), moderate (4-6) and high (7-10) COVID-19 severity score. This developed and validated novel COVID-19 severity score will aid physicians in predicting mortality during surge periods.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Research Design , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arterial Pressure , Blood Urea Nitrogen , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 471, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769223


A growing body of evidence demonstrates that asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a major contributor to the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontline healthcare workers in COVID-19 hotspots have faced numerous challenges, including shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) and difficulties acquiring clinical testing. The magnitude of the exposure of healthcare workers and the potential for asymptomatic transmission makes it critical to understand the incidence of infection in this population. To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst healthcare workers, we studied frontline staff working in the Montefiore Health System in New York City. All participants were asymptomatic at the time of testing and were tested by RT-qPCR and for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The medical, occupational, and COVID-19 exposure histories of participants were recorded via questionnaires. Of the 98 asymptomatic healthcare workers tested, 19 (19.4%) tested positive by RT-qPCR and/or ELISA. Within this group, four (4.1%) were RT-qPCR positive, and four (4.1%) were PCR and IgG positive. Notably, an additional 11 (11.2%) individuals were IgG positive without a positive PCR. Two PCR positive individuals subsequently developed COVID-19 symptoms, while all others remained asymptomatic at 2-week follow-up. These results indicate that there is considerable asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 within the healthcare workforce, despite current mitigation policies. Furthermore, presuming that asymptomatic staff are not carrying SARS-CoV-2 is inconsistent with our results, and this could result in amplified transmission within healthcare settings. Consequently, aggressive testing regiments, such as testing frontline healthcare workers on a regular, multi-modal basis, may be required to prevent further spread within the workforce and to patients.