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Front Immunol ; 13: 1009424, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215264


Introduction: The innate immune responses of upper airway could further our understanding toward antiviral strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We characterize the potential of interferon (IFN)-λ as an innate immune inducer for the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in the lung and the therapeutic efficacy of intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ to resolve acute lung infection. Methods: Syrian golden hamsters were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection depending on IFN-λ inoculation were tested. Results: SARS-CoV-2-infected Syrian golden hamsters exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and high viral mRNA level at 3 days post-infection (dpi). Although viral replication was reduced completely from 7 dpi, the pathologic findings remained prominent until 14 dpi in the lung of hamsters. The transcription of IFN-λ was significantly induced in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection with the increase of IFN-stimulated genes. Intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ restricted SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lungs of infected completely from 3 dpi with markedly reduction of inflammatory cytokines. The transcriptional phenotypes were altered to the direction of damage repair and tissue remodeling in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters following intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ, which improved SARS-CoV-2-caused lung damage. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that IFN-λ might be a potent innate immune inducer in the lung and intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ resolves SARS-CoV-2 infection with rapid viral clearance and improvement of lung damage.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Interferon Lambda , Viral Load , Mesocricetus , Lung
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043705


Since December 2019, COVID-19 has greatly influenced public healthcare systems around the globe in various aspects, including limitation of healthcare accessibility due to lack of both human and financial resources, suspension of clinics, and fear of infection causing healthcare avoidance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on access to healthcare for otorhinolaryngology patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Otorhinolaryngology patients' disease severity status, diagnosed at the first hospital visit, was investigated during the pre -and post-COVID-19 pandemic era in a single medical center located in Seoul, Korea. An ordinal regression model was used to assess the impact of both SES and the COVID-19 pandemic on otorhinolaryngology diseases. Within the chronic rhinosinusitis group, lower SES was associated with a higher disease severity at the first visit compared to higher SES (OR = 3.25). During the COVID-19 pandemic, while the total number of outpatients was reduced, the severity of these ENT diseases seemed to increase compared to the pre-pandemic severity in every SES group. Our study demonstrates the negative impact a worldwide pandemic can have on healthcare inequity and disease severity, and highlights the importance of re-allocating fundamental resources for those in need during periods of public health crisis.

COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Social Class