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J Korean Med Sci ; 37(11): e88, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753355


Nasopharyngeal swabs have been widely to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing is a generally safe and well-tolerated procedure, but numerous complications have been reported in the media. Therefore, the present study aimed to review and document adverse events and suggest procedural references to minimize preventable but often underestimated risks. A total of 27 articles were selected for the review of 842 related documents in PubMed, Embase, and KoreaMed. The complications related to nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing were reported to be rarely happened, ranging from 0.0012 to 0.026%. Frequently documented adverse events were retained swabs, epistaxis, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, often associated with high-risk factors, including severe septal deviations, pre-existing skull base defects, and previous sinus or transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Appropriate techniques based on sufficient anatomical knowledge are mandatory for clinicians to perform nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing. The nasal floor can be predicted by the line between the nostril and external ear canal. For safe testing, the angle of swab insertion in the nasal passage should remain within 30° of the nasal floor. The swab was gently inserted along the nasal septum just above the nasal floor to the nasopharynx and remained on the nasopharynx for several seconds before removal. Forceful insertion should be attempted, and alternative examinations should be considered, especially in vulnerable patients. In conclusion, patients and clinicians should be aware of rare but possible complications and associated high-risk factors. The suggested procedural pearls enable more comfortable and safe nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing for both clinicians and patients.

COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/adverse effects , Humans , Nasal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Specimen Handling/methods
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674491


Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is considered a potential method for anti-inflammation due to the involvement of the VN in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) formation of a connection between the central nervous system and peripheral immune cells that help relieve inflammation. However, whether a non-invasive transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) modulates the inflammation levels via altering the parameter of taVNS is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the differential inhibitory effects of taVNS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation using electrical stimulation parameters such as pulse frequency and time. The taVNS-promoted CAP activity significantly recovered LPS-induced tissue injuries (lung, spleen, and intestine) and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels and tissue-infiltrated immune cells. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory capacity of taVNS with 15 Hz was much higher than that of taVNS with 25 Hz. When a cytokine array was used to investigate the changes of inflammation and immune response-related cytokines/chemokines expression in taVNS with 15 Hz or 25 Hz treatment in LPS-induced endotoxemia in mice, most of the expression of cytokines/chemokines associated with pro-inflammation was severely decreased in taVNS with 15 Hz compared to 25 Hz. This study demonstrated that the taVNS parameter could differentially modulate the inflammation levels of animals, suggesting the importance of taVNS parameter selection for use in feasible interventions for acute inflammation treatment.