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1.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319906

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative/supportive therapeutic options.

2.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(6):683-708, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1134565

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (CoV), earlier named 2019-nCoV, and later as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now created havoc and panic across the globe by its severe ongoing pandemic. This virus has to date as of 23rd November 2020, killed nearly 1.4 million persons out of more than 59 million confirmed positive cases, while spreading rapidly in more than 215 countries and territories. Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 has been characterized in genus Betacoronavirus, which contains non-segmented positive-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA genome of ~30 kb. The first two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1a and ORF1b, of SARS-CoV-2, encode 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-nsp16), whereas other ORFs encodes four main structural proteins (sp) [spike (s) by ORF2, envelope (E) by ORF4, membrane (M) by ORF5, nucleoprotein (N) by ORF9], and accessory proteins essential for the virus fitness, pathogenesis and host immunity evasion. Sequence alignments of SARS-CoV-2 with genomes of various coronaviruses showed 58% identity in the non-structural protein (nsp)-coding region, 43% with the structural protein (sp)-coding region and 54% with the whole genome. The full-length genome sequence of the 2019-nCoV sample showed only up to 79.60% similarity with SARS CoV, but up to 96% similarity with bat coronavirus (bat coronavirus RaTG13). This gives strong evidence that 2019-nCoV has originated from the bat. The genomic and evolutionary evidence of another coronavirus species from pangolins also show higher similarity to SARS-CoV at the whole-genome level. Apart from RaTG13, Pangolin-CoV is the most closely related CoV to SARS-CoV-2. During infection, the viral S protein interacts with the receptor protein of the human cell membrane, known as angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). Presently, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and drugs are not available, for which researchers are trying hard to develop to tackle rising tide of COVID-19-pandemic. Early diagnosis, contact tracing, strict prevention and control measures, biosecurity, personal biosafety, disinfection and sanitization practices, social distancing are aiding in prevention with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Boosting immunity by intaking the balanced and nutritious food, nutraceuticals, herbs, and following physical exercises along with avoiding stress conditions enhance the fighting power of the body against SARS-CoV-2 infection and limiting the severity of COVID-19. The present article describes salient knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 structure, genomic organization, pathogenesis, pathobiology, and advances and progress being made to treat COVID-19 patients. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000711

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease – 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative / supportive therapeutic options. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

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