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1.
Clin Exp Med ; 22(1): 125-135, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198467

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify prevalence and association of comorbid chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI) and utilization prevalence of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in COVID-19-hospitalized patients as a function of severity status. With the ongoing struggle across the globe to combat COVID-19 disease, published literature has described the role of kidney disease in COVID-19 patients based on single/multicenter experiences across the globe. We extracted data from observational studies describing comorbid CKD, AKI and CRRT and outcomes and severity of COVID-19-hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019-August 20, 2020 following PRISMA guidelines. Severity of COVID-19 includes intensive care unit admission, oxygen saturation < 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation utilization, in-hospital admission and mortality. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate pooled estimates, and forest plots were created. In total, 29 studies with 15,017 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. The overall prevalence of AKI was 11.6% [(430/3693)], comorbid CKD 9.7% [(1342/13,728)] and CRRT 2.58% [(102/3946)] in our meta-analysis. We also found higher odds of comorbid CKD (pooled OR: 1.70; 95%CI: 1.21-2.40; p = 0.002), AKI (8.28; 4.42-15.52; p < 0.00001) and utilization of CRRT (16.90; 9.00-31.74; p < 0.00001) in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that comorbid CKD, AKI and utilization of CRRT were significantly associated with COVID-19 disease severity. Clinicians should focus on early triaging of COVID-19 patients with comorbid CKD and at risk for AKI to prevent complication and mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13420, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143806

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has multiorgan involvement and its severity varies with the presence of pre-existing risk factors like cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension (HTN). Therefore, it is important to evaluate their effect on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. The objective of this meta-analysis and meta-regression is to evaluate outcomes of COVID-19 amongst patients with CVD and HTN. METHODS: English full-text observational studies having data on epidemiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were identified searching PubMed from December 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, following Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) protocol. Studies having pre-existing CVD and HTN data that described outcomes including mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) utilization were selected. Using random-effects models, risk of composite poor outcomes (meta-analysis) and isolated mortality and IMV utilization (meta-regression) were evaluated. Pooled prevalence of CVD and HTN, correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio (OR) were estimated. The forest plots and correlation plots were created using random-effects models. RESULTS: Out of 29 studies (n=27,950) that met the criteria, 28 and 27 studies had data on CVD and HTN, respectively. Pooled prevalence of CVD was 18.2% and HTN was 32.7%. In meta-analysis, CVD (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 2.29-4.94) and HTN (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.40) were associated with composite poor outcome. In age-adjusted meta-regression, pre-existing CVD was having significantly higher correlation of IMV utilization (r: 0.28; OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) without having any association with mortality (r: -0.01; OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1) among COVID-19 hospitalizations. HTN was neither correlated with higher IMV utilization (r: 0.01; OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1) nor correlated with higher mortality (r: 0.001; OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1). CONCLUSION: In age-adjusted analysis, though we identified pre-existing CVD as a risk factor for higher utilization of mechanical ventilation, pre-existing CVD and HTN had no independent role in increasing mortality.

3.
IDCases ; 24: e01063, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126837

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected more than 67.9 million individuals world-wide and led to more than 15.5 million Deaths. In the initial studies from China, 88.7 % of the patient were noted to have fever, 67 % of the patient had cough and 56.4 % had ground glass changes on the chest imaging. With time, the presentation of patients has been found to be highly variable and unpredictable. COVID-19 is reported to present with various complications, ranging from gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations, such as loss of sensation of taste, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, pancreatitis and hepatobiliary disease, to neurological manifestations of encephalitis and stroke, and cardiovascular manifestations like myocarditis, heart failure and arrythmia. We report a rare case of COVID-19 presenting with abdominal pain from aortitis.

4.
Fam Med Community Health ; 8(3)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724797

ABSTRACT

A narrative review was conducted to examine the current state of the utilisation of telemedicine amid the current COVID-19 pandemic and to evaluate the benefits of continuing telemedicine usage in the future. A literature review was performed for articles related to telemedicine. Databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Ovid MEDLINE were searched. Three reviewers independently performed article selection based on relevance to our topic. We included all articles between 1990 and 2020 related to telemedicine using the following keywords: 'telemedicine', 'telehealth', 'policy', 'COVID-19', 'regulation', 'rural', 'physical examination', 'future'. A total of 60 articles were identified, and through careful selection we narrowed the final number of articles to 42 based on relevance to our topic. Telemedicine has been rapidly evolving over the past several decades. Issues with regulation and reimbursement have prevented its full immersion into the healthcare system. During the current pandemic, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services have expanded access to telemedicine services. The advantages of telemedicine moving forward include its cost-effectiveness, ability to extend access to specialty services and its potential to help mitigate the looming physician shortage. Disadvantages include lack of available technological resources in certain parts of the country, issues with security of patient data, and challenges in performing the traditional patient examination. It is critically important that changes are made to fully immerse telemedicine services into the healthcare landscape in order to be prepared for future pandemics as well as to reap the benefits of this service in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Forecasting , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Physicians/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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