Subject(s)COVID-19 , Allergists , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a critical challenge to the current oncology care and practices including late diagnoses, delayed anti-cancer treatment, and static clinical trials. With the increasing risk of cancer patients acquiring infection during receiving the essential care, the debate ensues on how to balance the risk factors and benefits out of the oncologic emergencies in cancer patients. In this review article, we have focused on the current global re-organization of the integrity and effectiveness of the treatment modalities depending on the patient and cancer-specific urgencies while minimizing exposure to the infection. In this review, we addressed how the worldwide oncology community is united to share therapy schemes and the best possible guidelines to help cancer patients, and to strategize and execute therapy/trial protocols. This review provides collective knowledge on the current re-structuring of the general framework that prioritizes cancer care with the available exploitation of the reduced resources and most importantly the unparalleled levels of companionship as a large health care community towards the need to offer the best possible care to the patients.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments have implemented a wide range of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Monitoring and documenting government strategies during the COVID-19 crisis is crucial to understand the progression of the epidemic. Following a content analysis strategy of existing public information sources, we developed a specific hierarchical coding scheme for NPIs. We generated a comprehensive structured dataset of government interventions and their respective timelines of implementation. To improve transparency and motivate collaborative validation process, information sources are shared via an open library. We also provide codes that enable users to visualise the dataset. Standardization and structure of the dataset facilitate inter-country comparison and the assessment of the impacts of different NPI categories on the epidemic parameters, population health indicators, the economy, and human rights, among others. This dataset provides an in-depth insight of the government strategies and can be a valuable tool for developing relevant preparedness plans for pandemic. We intend to further develop and update this dataset until the end of December 2020.
Subject(s)Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Government , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
The global pandemic caused by the newly described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused worldwide suffering and death of unimaginable magnitude from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus is transmitted through aerosol droplets, and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain of its spike protein S1 to attach to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in lung and airway cells. Binding requires the help of another host protein, transmembrane protease serine S1 member 2. Several factors likely contribute to the efficient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 has a 10- to 20-fold higher receptor-binding capacity compared with previous pandemic coronaviruses. In addition, because asymptomatic persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 have high viral loads in their nasal secretions, they can silently and efficiently spread the disease. PCR-based tests have emerged as the criterion standard for the diagnosis of infection. Caution must be exercised in interpreting antibody-based tests because they have not yet been validated, and may give a false sense of security of being "immune" to SARS-CoV-2. We discuss how the development of some symptoms in allergic rhinitis can serve as clues for new-onset COVID-19. There are mixed reports that asthma is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, possibly due to differences in asthma endotypes. The rapid spread of COVID-19 has focused the efforts of scientists on repurposing existing Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs that inhibit viral entry, endocytosis, genome assembly, translation, and replication. Numerous clinical trials have been launched to identify effective treatments for COVID-19. Initial data from a placebo-controlled study suggest faster time to recovery in patients on remdesivir; it is now being evaluated in additional controlled studies. As discussed in this review, till effective vaccines and treatments emerge, it is important to understand the scientific rationale of pandemic-mitigation strategies such as wearing facemasks and social distancing, and implement them.
Subject(s)Asthma/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , Quarantine/organization & administration , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
Coronavirus outbreak has affected thousands of people in at least 186 countries which has affected the cancer care delivery system apart from affecting the overall health system. Cancer patients are more susceptible to coronavirus infection than individuals without cancer as they are in an immunosuppressive state because of the malignancy and anticancer treatment. Oncologists should be more attentive to detect coronavirus infection early, as any type of advanced cancer is at much higher risk for unfavorable outcomes. Oncology communities must ensure that cancer patients should spend more time at home and less time out in the community. Oncologists and other health care professionals involved in cancer care have a critical opportunity to communicate to their patients to pass on right information regarding practice modifications in view of COVID-19 outbreaks. Countries must isolate, test, treat and trace to control the coronavirus pandemic. There is a paucity of information on novel coronavirus infection and its impact on cancer patients and cancer care providers. To date, there is no scientific guideline regarding management of cancer patients in a background of coronavirus outbreak.