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1.
International Series in Operations Research and Management Science ; 320:3-26, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1756675

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is playing sensitive havoc in socio-communal systems, humanity and creates economic crises worldwide. Many strategies have been used to managed and curtailed the COVID-19 outbreak, but many countries are still helpless in fighting and containing the outbreak. In an increasingly knowledge-driven, healthcare innovation, and linked society, fighting COVID-19 becomes easier. The Big Data drives the digital revolution by providing solutions focused on big data analytics empowered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) to reduce the difficulty and cognitive burden of accessing and processing large quantities of data. Hence, big data and AI can have been applied in fighting COVID-19 pandemic since the use of both technologies empowered Big Data Analytics (BDA) and yielded imaginable results in combating infectious diseases globally. Therefore, this paper reviews the applicability and importance of AI and Big Data methods to data produced from the countless ubiquitously connected healthcare devices that produced entrenched and distributed information handling capabilities in fighting COVID-19 outbreak. In the area of managing big data for real-time diagnosing, monitoring, and treating COVID-19 patients, AI enabled with big data analytics has shown tremendous potential. The technologies can also be used in the development of drugs and vaccines within the shortest of time, more than ever before. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6719-6730, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 vaccines have developed quickly, and vaccination programs have started in most countries to fight the pandemic. The aging population is vulnerable to different diseases, also including the COVID-19. A high death rate of COVID-19 was noted from the vulnerable aging population. A present scenario regarding COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination program foraging adults had been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the current status and future projections till 2050 of the aging population worldwide. It also discusses the immunosenescence and inflammaging issues facing elderly adults and how it affects the vaccinations such as influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster. RESULTS: This paper recommends clinical trials for all approved COVID-19 vaccines targeting the elderly adult population and to project a plan to develop a next-generation COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The review has mapped the COVID-19 vaccination status from the developed and developing countries for the elderly population. Finally, strategies to vaccinate all elderly adults globally against COVID-19 to enhance longevity has been suggested.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunosenescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
3.
Cmc-Computers Materials & Continua ; 70(1):213-231, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1412677

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become one of the critical health issues globally, which surfaced first in latter part of the year 2019. It is the topmost concern for many nations' governments as the contagious virus started mushrooming over adjacent regions of infected areas. In 1980, a vaccine called Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was introduced for preventing tuberculosis and lung cancer. Countries that have made the BCG vaccine mandatory have witnessed a lesser COVID-19 fatality rate than the countries that have not made it compulsory. This paper's initial research shows that the countries with a long-term compulsory BCG vaccination system are less affected by COVID-19 than those without a BCG vaccination system. This paper discusses analytical data patterns for medical applications regarding COVID-19 impact on countries with mandatory BCG status on fatality rates. The paper has tackled numer-ous analytical challenges to realize the full potential of heterogeneous data. An analogy is drawn to demonstrate how other factors can affect fatality and infection rates other than BCG vaccination only, such as age groups affected, other diseases, and stringency index. The data of Spain, Portugal, and Germany have been taken for a case study of BCG impact analysis.

4.
IEEE Access ; 9:97505-97517, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1331654

ABSTRACT

Ever since the pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, it has been recognized as a global threat and several studies have been carried out nationally and globally to predict the outbreak with varying levels of dependability and accuracy. Also, the mobility restrictions have had a widespread impact on people's behavior such as fear of using public transportation (traveling with unknown passengers in the closed area). Securing an appropriate level of safety during the pandemic situation is a highly problematic issue that resulted from the transportation sector which has been hit hard by COVID-19. This paper focuses on developing an intelligent computing model for forecasting the outbreak of COVID-19. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) machine learning model is used to develop the best model for twenty-one worst-affected states of India and six worst-hit countries of the world including India. The best ARIMA models are used for predicting the daily-confirmed cases for 90 days future values of six worst-hit countries of the world and six high incidence states of India. The goodness-of-fit measures for the model achieved 85% MAPE for all the countries and all states of India. The above computational analysis will be able to throw some light on the planning and management of healthcare systems and infrastructure. © 2013 IEEE.

5.
EAI Endorsed Transactions on Pervasive Health and Technology ; 7(26), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1209404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has recently emerged around the world. The beginning of the disease was in the Chinese city of Wuhan and then it has been spread and became a global epidemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 disease is absolutely necessary to control the epidemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to present a review of the contribution of machine learning (ML) and IoT to confront the epidemic. METHODS: Diagnosis using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a definite diagnosis, but this method takes time, while a diagnosis using a computed tomography (CT) scan is a faster approach to diagnosis. However, a large number of patients need a CT scan, which puts a lot of pressure on the radiologist so visual fatigue may lead to diagnostic errors so there is an urgent need for additional solutions. Artificial intelligence (AI) is an efficient tool to combat COVID-19 disease. Computer scientists have been developing many systems to handle this epidemic. RESULTS: It was found that ML is an efficient and powerful AI technology that can be used for trustworthy COVID-19 detecting and diagnosis from X-ray and CT images and it can be a potential method for diagnosis in the radiology department. In addition, ML can be used in segmentation, prediction purposes for COVID-19. Furthermore, ML can effectively support drug discovery procedure and can reduce clinical failures. CONCLUSION: IoT has a significant role in monitoring an individual's health and COVID-19 diagnosis. This paper also highlights the challenges of employing ML and intelligent IoT for fighting COVID-19. t © 2021 Chinmay Chakraborty et al., licensed to EAI.

6.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):165-166, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1148493
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1708-1723, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 is a global warning for the healthcare system. The spike protein of virus SARS-CoV-2 is significant because of two reasons. Firstly, the spike protein of this virus binds with the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor. Secondly, it has several antigenic regions that might be targeted for vaccine development. However, the structural analytical data for the spike protein of this virus is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we performed an analysis to understand the structural two subunits of S glycoprotein (S gp) of SARS-CoV-2. Further, an analysis of secondary structure components and the tertiary structure analysis of RBD was carried out. We also performed molecular interaction analysis between S gp of this virus and hACE2 as well as between SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 to compare the binding properties of these two viruses. RESULTS: We noted that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 form eleven hydrogen bonds, while the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor form seven hydrogen bonds, indicating that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 receptor is more stable than SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor. The pairwise sequence alignment of S gp SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 shows several conserved residues of these two proteins. Besides, conserved pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 revealed the presence of several highly conserved regions for these two proteins. The molecular dynamics simulation shows a stable interplay between SARS-CoV-2 S gp with the hACE2 receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study might help determine the SARS-CoV-2 virus entrance mechanism into the human cell. Moreover, the understanding of the conserved regions may help in the process of therapeutic development from the infection of the deadly virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Glycosylation , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Subunits
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11409-11420, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease and it has become an epidemic worldwide in recent decades. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, diabetes has become a serious health concern since large numbers of patients are vulnerable to die from the virus. Thus, diabetic patients affected by COVID-19 cause a major health crisis now. Reports show that large occurrence of diabetes makes it a serious comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is crucial to understand how COVID-19 affects diabetes patients. This paper has reviewed published literature extensively to understand the pattern, importance, care, and medication. RESULTS: This review summarizes the association between COVID-19 and diabetes in terms of susceptibility for pneumonia and other diseases. It also discusses the harshness of COVID-19 with diabetes populations and immunological impacts. It further adds the ACE2 receptor role in diabetes with COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Finally, this paper illustrates different types of diabetes management techniques, such as blood glucose management, self-management, mental health management, and therapeutic management. It also summarizes the current knowledge about diabetic patients with COVID-19 to fight this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Pancreas/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(7): 4016-4026, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-123794

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the outbreak of severe respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China and is now spreading rapidly throughout the world. The prompt outbreak of COVID-19 and its quick spread without any controllable measure defines the severity of the situation. In this crisis, a collective pool of knowledge about the advancement of clinical diagnostic and management for COVID-19 is a prerequisite. Here, we summarize all the available updates on the multidisciplinary approaches for the advancement of diagnosis and proposed therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Moreover, the review discusses different aspects of the COVID-19, including its epidemiology; incubation period; the general clinical features of patients; the clinical features of intensive care unit (ICU) patients; SARS-CoV-2 infection in the presence of co-morbid diseases and the clinical features of pediatric patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2. Advances in various diagnostic approaches, such as the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) imaging; and other modern diagnostic methods, for this infection have been highlighted. However, due to the unavailability of adequate evidence, presently there are no officially approved drugs or vaccines available against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we have discussed various therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 under different categories, like the possible treatment plans with drug (antiviral drugs and anti-cytokines) therapy for disease prevention. Lastly, potentials candidates for the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described. Collectively, the review provides an overview of the SARS-CoV-2 infection outbreak along with the recent advancements and strategies for diagnosis and therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Vaccines
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