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European Journal of Biological Research ; 12(1):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1626950


More than 220 countries and territories are globally affected by the recent pandemic COVID-19 which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is possibility of third wave of this pandemic as per epidemiological and public health experts. Besides that post-COVID-19 complications are alarming matter to look upon. Post-COVID-19 complications include several symptoms like as persistent fever;cough;fatigue;headache;attention disorder;dyspnea;anosmia;ageusia;chest pain discomfort;various respiratory illness;acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19. In some COVID-19 patients, hyperinflammation in the form of 'cytokine storm' along with dysregulated immune response, alveolar epithelial tissue injury and wound repair collectively cause this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, using antifibrotic agents e.g. pirfenidone, nintedanib and other natural compounds could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article, we have discussed the progression of pulmonary fibrosis development which is triggered by COVID-19;probable solutions with anti-fibrotic agents including anti-fibrotic drugs, some wellknown natural compounds, combined anti-fibrotic therapies;and the current challenges of this field. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Biological Research is the property of Journal of Biology & Earth Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

Indian J Psychiatry ; 63(3): 222-227, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296031


BACKGROUND: Little information is available from India about the psychological impact of COVID-19 on helath-care workers. AIM: The current study aimed to evaluate the psychological issues among the health-care workers (HCW) during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey using Survey Monkey® platform was carried out to evaluate depression (using Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (using Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7), and other psychological issues (using a self-designed questionnaire). RESULTS: The study sample comprised 303 participants with a mean age of 41.2 (standard deviation: 11.1) years. A majority of them were male (69%) and married (79.9%). Nearly half (46.2%) of the participants had either anxiety disorder or depression or both and 12.9% of HCW had suicidal behavior. Higher level of anxiety and depression scores were associated with being female, having undergone quarantine, directly involved in the care of COVID-19 patients, and younger age (<30 years). Higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder was seen in younger (<30 years) age group, being a doctor (compared to paramedics). In addition, higher prevalence of depression was seen in those who were directly involved in the care of patients with COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: About half of the HCWs are suffering from psychiatric morbidity, specifically anxiety, in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need to assess all the HCWs for psychiatric morbidity and provide them with psychological support.

Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(4): 354-362, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738100


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a complete shut-down of the entire world and almost all the countries are presently in a "lockdown" mode. While the lockdown strategy is an essential step to curb the exponential rise of COVID-19 cases, the impact of the same on mental health is not well known. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the psychological impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on the general public with an objective to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, well-being, and other psychological issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was an online survey conducted under the aegis of the Indian Psychiatry Society. Using the Survey Monkey platform, a survey link was circulated using the Whatsapp. The survey questionnaire included perceived stress scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale to assess perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and mental well-being, respectively. The survey link was circulated starting from April 6, 2020 and was closed on April 24, 2020. RESULTS: During the survey, a total of 1871 responses were collected, of which 1685 (90.05%) responses were analyzed. About two-fifth (38.2%) had anxiety and 10.5% of the participants had depression. Overall, 40.5% of the participants had either anxiety or depression. Moderate level of stress was reported by about three-fourth (74.1%) of the participants and 71.7% reported poor well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The present survey suggests that more than two-fifths of the people are experiencing common mental disorders, due to lockdown and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic. This finding suggests that there is a need for expanding mental health services to everyone in the society during this pandemic situation.

Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(3): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437700


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic poses a unique medical challenge to the humanity in recent times. The psychological impact of the pandemic itself and the lockdown in particular is likely to be huge. AIM: To assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was an online survey which was conducted using Google Forms with link sent using WhatsApp. A 38-item self-designed questionnaire was used for the study. The survey questionnaire would take around 5-7 min to complete. Total 507 responses were received by the stipulated time. RESULTS: Near about five-seventh (71.8%) and one-fifth (24.7%) of the respondents felt more worried and depressed, respectively, in the past 2 weeks. Half of the respondents (52.1%) were preoccupied with the idea of contracting COVID-19 and one-fifth (21.1%) of the respondents were repeatedly thinking of getting themselves tested for the presence of COVID-19 despite having no symptoms. Majority (69.6%) of the respondents were worried about the financial loss they were incurring during the period of lockdown. One-fourth (25.6%) and one-third (30.8%) of the respondents found that COVID-19 pandemic had threatened their existence and they found it difficult to adjust to the new routine during 21-day lockdown period, respectively. CONCLUSION: The index survey suggested that worry and sleep disturbances were common among the respondents in the past 2 weeks. The pandemic threatened the existence of the respondents to a great extent and affected their mental status negatively.