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1.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES-IJHS ; 16(4):30-45, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935176

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed at the identification of the association of comorbidities with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization. Methods: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study to investigate the variation in age, sex, dwelling, comorbidities, and medication with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization by enrolling 1025 recovered individuals while comparing their time of recovery with or without comorbidities. Results: COVID-19 patients mostly suffered from fever. The predominant underlying medical conditions in them were hypertension (HTN) followed by diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) (54.3%) and hepatic disorders (HD) (43.6%) experienced higher severity. The risk of symptomatic cases was higher in aged (odds ratio, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06) and comorbid (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.34-2.60) patients. T-test confirmed the differences between the comorbid and non-comorbid patients' recovery duration. The presence of multiple comorbidities increased the time of recovery (15-27 days) and hospitalization (20-40%). Increased symptomatic cases were found for patients having DM+HTN whereas CVD+Asthma patients were found with higher percentage of severity. Besides, DM+CKD (chronic kidney disease) was associated with higher hospitalization rate. Higher odds of severity were found for DM+CVD (OR = 4.42, 95% CI = 1.81-10.78) patients. Hospitalization risk was also increased for them (OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 2.02-13.07). Moreover, if they had HTN along with DM+CVD, they were found with even higher odds (OR = 6.82, 95% CI = 2.37-19.58) for hospitalization. Conclusion: Our study indicates that people who are aged, females, living in urban area and have comorbid conditions are at a higher risk for developing COVID-19 severity. Clinicians and health management authorities should prioritize these high-risk groups to reduce mortality attributed to the disease.

2.
Reference Series in Phytochemistry ; : 573-597, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1888827

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammation and oxidative damage have been proven as fundamental factors associated with many systemic diseases, leading to increased morbidity. To deal with this, formulation of new functional foods, dietary polyphenols, and supplements containing multiple natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents is required to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade. Several studies have shown a positive association between increased intake of dietary antioxidants and reduced risk for chronic inflammatory diseases and oxidative stress. This chapter concentrates on the underlying mechanisms of how different groups of dietary antioxidants, like vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and plant polyphenols, prevent the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress responses. Oxidative stress and inflammation mechanisms are discussed in the light of critical balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Also, roles of dietary antioxidants were discussed as an adjunctive treatment strategy to COVID-19 patients. Given the convincing evidence for protective as well as curative role of dietary antioxidants in inflammatory processes, more detailed understanding on the effects of nutrients on multiple aspects and development of novel anti-inflammatory agents is required to optimize approaches. To improve the bioavailability and targeted delivery of external antioxidants, nonreactive carriers or vehicles are needed to be designed with more precision and accuracy. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

3.
2nd International Conference on Intelligent and Cloud Computing, ICICC 2021 ; 286:97-109, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826295

ABSTRACT

The Novel Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), which created this pandemic, makes us realize the importance of universal social and health care systems. The frontline workers worked restlessly during the pandemic and few of them also lost their lives. There is a need for a remote IoT health monitoring system that takes care of the health of infected patients, conducts regular health checks, and reduces contact between an infected person and health workers. This especially helps the patients with mild symptoms who are home quarantined. The IoT system monitors a person 24/7 and a report can be generated and sent to the doctor at the same time. However, such a procedure will produce a large amount of data. A major research challenge addressed in this paper is to effectively transfer health care data with the help of existing network infrastructure and transfer it to the cloud. In this paper, we have identified the key network and infrastructure requirements for a standard health monitoring system based on real-time event updates, bandwidth requirements, data collection, and data analysis. After that, we propose IRHMP- IoT-based remote healthcare device that delivers health care data efficiently to the cloud and the web portal. Finally, we have proposed a machine-learning algorithm to provide and predict future health risks with the help of recorded data. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

4.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 77(4):625, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1768912

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). Despite vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. Therefore, understanding all aspects of the disease is crucial to further developing treatment and preventative care strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. This study aims to assess AKI incidence among COVID-19 pediatric patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) within North America using the Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS) database. Additionally, this study assesses AKI associated risk factors, treatments such as kidney replacement therapy (KRT) and associated mortality rates among COVID-19 pediatric patients within North America using VPS data. This is a retrospective study of COVID-19 pediatric patients (age < 24 years) in the pediatric ICU within North America using the VPS COVID-19 database between January 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020. Currently data regarding 1240 pediatric COVID-19 patients has been analyzed. 172 of these patients had renal/urinary system involvement. Of the 172 patients with renal involvement, there were 19 confirmed deaths. This means that 45% of all confirmed pediatric COVID-19 deaths were associated with renal involvement. 36 patients received KRT and there are 2 confirmed deaths in this group. Additionally, 264 (24.67%) patients were diagnosed with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Although COVID-19 in the pediatric population tends to present more favorably, renal involvement among the pediatric COVID-19 patient population may be considered a negative prognostic factor with respect to patient outcomes.

5.
2021 International Workshop on Advanced in Information Security Management and Applications, AISMA 2021 ; 3094:49-58, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1762170

ABSTRACT

India is facing the problem of the digital divide. Being developing countries and with low literacy rates, digital knowledge among the public is weak. Those who know a bit about digital operations on smartphones and computers are not having complete knowledge of data security and its peculiarities. Therefore, this study aimed to find determinants of data-privacy anxiety among Indians and to understand their stress and anxiety during the use of digital applications in their daily routines, especially amid the COVID-19 scenario. The current study adopted an inductive qualitative exploratory approach to delve into the above issues. This study employed a reflexive thematic analysis method to analyse interview data of 10 participants across young-adult to middle-adult age groups of male and female gender. Participants belonged to middle socio-economic status having urban background. The study found 6 themes and 26 subordinate themes as determinants of data-privacy anxiety. Emerging themes from the data indicated at the systemic determinants of data-security anxiety, the paradox of learned helplessness and convenience preference among participants. This paper employed the Foucauldian lens of bio-power to discuss the circumscribing function of ill-structured knowledge dissemination approaches. This paper argues in favor of a critical pedagogy approach in educating people about digital security, dealing with data-privacy anxiety, and promoting safe digital usage among all generations of Indians. It also suggests measures of modifications in policies and documentation processes of major online platforms and apps to curb uncertainty and sense of insecurity among users. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

6.
IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports (CVCR) ; 5(3):177-180, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1664978

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrhythmias are common in patients of COVID -19 and frequently complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients. Life threatening arrhythmia including ventricular fibrillation less common but are reported to be more common in patients with elevated cardiac troponins. The mechanisms of arrhythmia in COVID 19 are multifactorial and arise from either direct cardiac involvement, from consequences systemic affection or drug interactions. The successful management requires correct identification of the cause. We report a case of VF storm in a patient with COVID 19 who responded to steroid therapy. Controlling the fulminant inflammation may reduce the burden of arrhythmia in appropriate cases.

7.
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition ; : 16, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550485

ABSTRACT

We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and prevalence of underweight, stunting, diarrhea and respiratory illness (RI) in school-age children in New Delhi, India. Mothers of 191 children aged 8-12 years were interviewed to collect HFI data using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale. Moderate-severe HFI was identified in 43.6% of the households. The odds for diarrhea, RI and stunting were increased by 4.7, 3.3 and 2.3 times respectively in food insecure children than food secure counterparts. HFI was not associated with underweight. There is an urgent need for effective strategies to mitigate HFI.

8.
22nd Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, INTERSPEECH 2021 ; 6:4281-4285, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1535022

ABSTRACT

Cough sounds as a descriptor have been used for detecting various respiratory ailments based on its intensity, duration of intermediate phase between two cough sounds, repetitions, dryness etc. However, COVID-19 diagnosis using only cough sounds is challenging because of cough being a common symptom among many non COVID-19 health diseases and inherent data imbalance within the available datasets. As one of the approach in this direction, we explore the robustness of multi-domain representation by performing the early fusion over a wide set of temporal, spectral and tempo-spectral handcrafted features, followed by training a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. In our second approach, using a contrastive loss function we learn a latent space from Mel Filter Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) where representations belonging to samples having similar cough characteristics are closer. This helps learn representations for the highly varied COVID-negative class (healthy and symptomatic COVID-negative), by learning multiple smaller clusters. Using only the DiCOVA data, multi-domain features yields an absolute improvement of 0.74% and 1.07%, whereas our second approach shows an improvement of 2.09% and 3.98%, over the blind test and validation set, respectively, when compared with challenge baseline. Copyright © 2021 ISCA.

9.
34th General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science, URSI GASS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1503821

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the variation of oxides, aerosols and atmospheric parameters have been investigated before, during and after the lockdown period due to COVID 19 over Kolkata, a populated metropolitan city. Major reductions have been observed for CO, SO2 and AOD especially at the beginning month of the lockdown period. The lower value of SO2 are reflected in the minima of AOD which further result in a marked reduction in the atmospheric instability. In addition, the temperature profiles depict atmospheric cooling at 700 hPa due to lockdown which is also believed to have some additional contribution on the observed CAPE reduction. © 2021 URSI.

10.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 32:80, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1490019

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a dearth of large-scale studies assessing the extent of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in pediatric COVID-19 patients. We aim to identify the epidemiology and associated risk factors of AKI in the pediatric COVID population through the Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS) database. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on 2,597 COVID-19 pediatric patients (≤ 24 years) in the VPS COVID-19 database including both males and females with a positive status of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ICU admission, and AKI diagnosis for the AKI group using ICD-10 codes. Variables included in the analyses covered demographics, diagnosis, lab order/results, treatment modalities, length of stay, and mortality. Categorical variables were summarized as percentages while continuous variables as medians. We utilized univariate analysis and multivariate linear regression to assess the differences between the patient group with AKI and those without. Results: An AKI incidence of 10.7% (297/2597) was found within the pediatric cohort. The AKI group had a significantly higher median hospital length of stay (9.1 days vs. 5.1), PIM2 and PIM3 probability of death (1.2 vs. 0.96 and 0.99 vs. 0.78, respectively), and proportion of mortality (7.5% vs. 1.6%) in comparison to the non-AKI group. Similarly, the AKI group experienced higher rates of interventions in comparison to the non-AKI group such as vascular access (67.0% vs. 29.8%), airway/respiratory support (55.9% vs. 43.8%), renal support (5.4% vs. 0.4%), and cardio-respiratory support (2.9% vs. 0.8%). Conclusions: AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Our study suggests a 4.7-fold increase in mortality in the COVID-19 AKI group. Pediatric COVID-19 patients should be monitored for AKI development and necessitate analyses on manifestations of COVID-19 to improve health outcomes.

11.
International Conference on Innovations in Cyber Physical Systems, ICICPS 2020 ; 788:381-390, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1442064

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic affected many people world-wide. It has become a global issue. The major priority of the scientific community is to control this pandemic. The infection can spread through various ways, mainly by touching a contaminated or infected surface or person-to-person contact (droplets from the oral and nasal passage from an infected person). Increase in the rate of infection can by caused by inadequate hygiene practices and cleanliness. The virus is active up to few hours on various surfaces and time may vary according to the nature of the surface. The virus can continue to spread rapidly by contact surfaces and air. Prevention of further viral spread can be attained by effective disinfection of surface and air. It is suggested that sanitizers (0.1% sodium hypochlorite) can effectively arrest COVID-19 virus within a minute. This paper describes a strong IoT-based disinfectant tunnel which is used to disinfect external surface of objects, clothes, or even human skin to provide protection against COVID-19 in social or public places such as malls, schools, hospitals, airports, and offices. Primarily focusing on the significance, structural design, and functioning of the tunnel. To make the tunnel cost-effective and sustainable, solar panels and steel rods have been used. The disinfectant tunnel is highly efficient as it offers no contact disinfection or sanitization. This sensitization tunnel must detect human to sanitize, this paper illustrates a novel approach of using sensors for human detection, and since this project is based on IoT as backbone, so security model must be there to guard against malicious user. This paper also illustrates end-to-end security model. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Sci Immunol ; 6(65): eabk1741, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443345

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia survivors often exhibit long-term pulmonary sequelae, but the underlying mechanisms or associated local and systemic immune correlates are not known. Here, we have performed high-dimensional characterization of the pathophysiological and immune traits of aged COVID-19 convalescents, and correlated the local and systemic immune profiles with pulmonary function and lung imaging. We found that chronic lung impairment was accompanied by persistent respiratory immune alterations. We showed that functional severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)­specific memory T and B cells were enriched at the site of infection compared with those of blood. Detailed evaluation of the lung immune compartment revealed that dysregulated respiratory CD8+ T cell responses were associated with the impaired lung function after acute COVID-19. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis identified the potential pathogenic subsets of respiratory CD8+ T cells contributing to persistent tissue conditions after COVID-19. Our results have revealed pathophysiological and immune traits that may support the development of lung sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in older individuals, with implications for the treatment of chronic COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Immunologic Memory , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 56(20), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1431403

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its concomitant socio-economic shocks have severely affected the lives of sex workers and members of the transgender community. This article examines how the visibility of such sexual minorities in public spaces has been perceived as a threat to public decency and morality. It highlights the exclusionary pressures they face from the state and community, which have been exacerbated by COVID-19. Overcrowded housing, financial precarity, and a reduction in demand for their services place them at higher risk of infection and starvation, while political and social exclusion restricts their access to government services.

14.
Health and Human Rights ; 23(1):237-250, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1332637

ABSTRACT

Despite widespread recognition of the right to a nationality, statelessness and its attendant vulnerabilities continue to characterize the lives of millions in South Asia. During the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when states turned inward to protect their own citizens, refugees and de facto stateless persons found themselves excluded from humanitarian services and health care and were denied the ability to claim rights. Stateless women faced the additional burden of gender-based violence, a hostile labor market, and the threat of trafficking. This paper analyzes gender and statelessness as vectors of exclusion in South Asia, where asylum seekers are neither recognized by law nor protected by social institutions. We argue that citizenship constitutes an unearned form of social capital that is claimed and experienced in distinctively gendered ways. The pandemic has shone a bright light on the perils of statelessness, particularly for women, who face exacerbated economic inequities, the forced commodification of their sexuality, and exclusion from mechanisms of justice. © 2021 Chakraborty and Bhabha.

15.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University ; 14(2):128-133, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1151773
16.
Pediatric Nephrology ; 29:29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients;however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.

17.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 77(4):625-625, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1176019
18.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 77(4):583-583, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1175940
19.
New Microbes New Infect ; 40: 100837, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047762

ABSTRACT

Defined as helpful live bacteria that can provide medical advantages to the host when administered in tolerable amounts, oral probiotics might be worth considering as a possible preventive or therapeutic modality to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom severity. This hypothesis stems from an emerging understanding of the gut-lung axis wherein probiotic microbial species in the digestive tract can influence systemic immunity, lung immunity, and possibly viral pathogenesis and secondary infection co-morbidities. We review the principles underlying the gut-lung axis, examples of probiotic-associated antiviral activities, and current clinical trials in COVID-19 based on oral probiotics.

20.
Indian Heart J ; 72(3): 145-150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378208

ABSTRACT

An echocardiographic investigation is one of the key modalities of diagnosis in cardiology. There has been a rising presence of cardiological comorbidities in patients positive for COVID-19. Hence, it is becoming extremely essential to look into the correct safety precautions, healthcare professionals must take while conducting an echo investigation. The decision matrix formulated for conducting an echocardiographic evaluation is based on presence or absence of cardiological comorbidity vis-à-vis positive, suspected or negative for COVID-19. The safety measures have been constructed keeping in mind the current safety precautions by WHO, CDC and MoHFW, India.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Echocardiography/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Societies, Medical
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