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1.
Ther Apher Dial ; 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612822

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has challenged the global healthcare system through rapid proliferation and lack of existing treatment resulting in over 180 million cases and 3.8 million deaths since December 2019. Although pediatric patients only comprise 1%-2% of diagnosed cases, their incidence of acute kidney injury ranges from 8.2% to 18.2% compared to 49% in adults. Severe infection, initiated by dysregulated host response, can lead to multiorgan failure. In this review, we focus on the use of various blood filters approved for use in pediatric kidney replacement therapy to mitigate adverse effects of severe illness. Therapeutic effects of these blood filters range from cytokine removal (CytoSorb, HA330, HCO/MCO), endotoxin removal (Toraymyxin, CPFA), both cytokine and endotoxin removal (oXiris), and nonspecific removal of proteins (PMMA) that have already been established and can be used to mitigate the various effects of the cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19.

2.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
3.
Kidney Med ; 3(3): 412-425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525987

ABSTRACT

Although the use of telemedicine in rural areas has increased steadily over the years, its use was rapidly implemented during the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. Due to this rapid implementation, there is a lack of standardized work flows to assess and treat for various nephrotic conditions, symptoms, treatment modalities, and transition processes in the pediatric population. To provide a foundation/suggestion for future standardized work flows, the authors of this report have developed standardized work flows using the Delphi method. These work flows were informed based on results from cross-sectional surveys directed to patients and providers. Most patients and providers were satisfied, 87% and 71%, respectively, with their telemedicine visits. Common issues that were raised with the use of telemedicine included difficulty procuring physical laboratory results and a lack of personal warmth during telemedicine visits. The work flows created based on these suggestions will both enhance safety in treating patients and allow for the best possible care.

4.
Blood Purif ; 51(3): 199-212, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The recent worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 has been a serious, multidimensional problem that has left a detrimental worldwide impact on individuals of all ages and several organ systems. The typical manifestation of kidney involvement is acute kidney injury (AKI); however, there is a lack of consensus data regarding AKI epidemiology in COVID-19. This systematic literature review aims to bridge this knowledge gap. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: MEDLINE and Cochrane library were systematically searched for the literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients of all ages. MedRxIV was searched for relevant unpublished manuscripts. Two reviewers independently assessed the literature on the incidence of AKI and mortality, extracting the need for kidney replacement therapy (KRT). RESULTS: Sixty studies (n = 43,871 patients) were included in this review. The pooled incidence of AKI among COVID-19 patients was 19.45% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI]: 14.63-24.77%), while the pooled incidence of AKI COVID-19 patients requiring KRT was 39.04% (16.38-64.57%). The pooled proportion of COVID+ patients was significantly lower at 8.83% (5.64% to 12/66%). The overall mortality of COVID-19 patients was calculated to be 17.71% (95% CI: 11.49-24.93%), while the mortality among patients with AKI was higher at 54.24% (95% CI: 44.70-63.63%). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive systematic review summarizes the available literature pertaining to AKI epidemiology in COVID-19 patients and highlights the incidence, associated mortality, and the need for KRT in this susceptible population.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
5.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 413, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689026

ABSTRACT

The recent worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 has had a detrimental worldwide impact on people of all ages. Although data from China and the United States indicate that pediatric cases often have a mild course and are less severe in comparison to adults, there have been several cases of kidney failure and multisystem inflammatory syndrome reported. As such, we believe that the world should be prepared if the severity of cases begins to further increase within the pediatric population. Therefore, we provide here a position paper centered on emergency preparation with resource allocation for critical COVID-19 cases within the pediatric population, specifically where renal conditions worsen due to the onset of AKI.

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