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1.
IEEE Transactions on Technology & Society ; 3(4):272-289, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192118

ABSTRACT

This article's main contributions are twofold: 1) to demonstrate how to apply the general European Union's High-Level Expert Group's (EU HLEG) guidelines for trustworthy AI in practice for the domain of healthcare and 2) to investigate the research question of what does "trustworthy AI" mean at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, we present the results of a post-hoc self-assessment to evaluate the trustworthiness of an AI system for predicting a multiregional score conveying the degree of lung compromise in COVID-19 patients, developed and verified by an interdisciplinary team with members from academia, public hospitals, and industry in time of pandemic. The AI system aims to help radiologists to estimate and communicate the severity of damage in a patient's lung from Chest X-rays. It has been experimentally deployed in the radiology department of the ASST Spedali Civili clinic in Brescia, Italy, since December 2020 during pandemic time. The methodology we have applied for our post-hoc assessment, called Z-Inspection R, uses sociotechnical scenarios to identify ethical, technical, and domain-specific issues in the use of the AI system in the context of the pandemic.

2.
Ieee Access ; 10:128469-128483, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191666

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to show concisely how we can promote chatbots in the medical sector and cure infectious diseases. We can create awareness through the users and the users can get proper medical solutions to prevent disease. We created a preliminary training model and a study report to improve human interaction in databases in 2021. Through natural language processing, we describe the human behaviors and characteristics of the chatbot. In this paper, we propose an AI Chatbot interaction and prediction model using a deep feedforward multilayer perceptron. Our analysis discovered a gap in knowledge about theoretical guidelines and practical recommendations for creating AI chatbots for lifestyle improvement programs. A brief comparison of our proposed model concerning the time complexity and accuracy of testing is also discussed in this paper. In our work, the loss is a minimum of 0.1232 and the highest accuracy is 94.32%. This study describes the functionalities and possible applications of medical chatbots and explores the accompanying challenges posed by the use of these emerging technologies during such health crises mainly posed by pandemics. We believe that our findings will help researchers get a better understanding of the layout and applications of these revolutionary technologies, which will be required for continuous improvement in medical chatbot functionality and will be useful in avoiding COVID-19.

3.
Medical Mycology ; 60(Supplement 1):112-113, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189364

ABSTRACT

Objective: Multipleinfections canoccur after2009, pandemicinfluenza, includingfungal andbacterial infections, but data from India are limited.To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of influenza-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA), caused by Aspergillus tamarii, after infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 which was preceded by COVID-19,20 months before. Methods andResults: A33-year-oldmale, knownasthmatic, hadbeen hospitalizedelsewhere inAugust 2020with COVID-19 pneumonia for 50 days and had been on mechanical ventilation for 37 days. He had no residual respiratory symptoms 3 months after recovery from COVID-19. He was admitted to Jupiter Hospital in April 2022 with fever, cough, and dyspnea for 8 days, which developed after a cold bath in a temple. HRCT (chest) showed ground glass opacities (GGOs), crazy paving, nodules, and traction bronchiectasis. Review of previous HRCT showed that only GGOs were present (Fig. 1). At admission, the nasopharyngeal swab was positive for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the filmarray respiratory panel and no other pathogen was detected. He was treated with oseltamivir. Expectorated sputum examination showed a heavy load of thin septate hyphae, with acute angle branching, resembling Aspergilllus species (Fig. 2). Serum galactomannan was positive (1.8).Based on these features he was diagnosed as a case of probable IAPA and initiated posaconazole (PCZ) treatment.Sputum fungal culture was positive and was identified by MALDI T OF MS as A. tamarii. A. tamarii has been rarely encountered as a human pathogen. Case reports of its involvement in eyelid infection, keratitis, invasive sinonasal infection, and onychomycosis exist. Sensititre MICs were 0.0625 mcg/ml, 0.125 mcg/ml, 0.0625 mcg/ml, and 0.125 mcg/mL for itraconazole, voriconazole, PCZ, and for isavuconazole (ISVCZ) respectively. The usually obtained PCZ trough level with standard dose is 1.2 mg/l which generates AUC of 200R.The usually obtained ISVC) trough level with standard dose is 3 mg/l which generates AUC of 100R. The PKPD index, AUC/MIC of 100, is needed with both these azoles for a therapeutic effectR. Therefore, it would be possible to treat this infection with any of these azoles. PCZ was continued in view of the easy availability of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to assure adequate drug expo-sure, lower cost, and clinical improvement which had already occurred. Conclusion(s): An infection due to a rare Aspergillus species needs correct identification, MIC determination, and PKPD consideration for appropriate drug selection and management.

4.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2177724

ABSTRACT

Aims: The protracted COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed health systems globally, including many aspects of cancer control. This has underscored the multidimensional nature of cancer control, which requires a more comprehensive approach involving taking a wider perspective of health systems. Here, we investigated aspects of health system resilience in maintaining cancer services globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. This will allow for health systems to be resilient to different types of system stressors/shocks in the future, to allow cancer care to be maintained optimally. Materials and methods: Using the World Health Organization health system framework (capturing aspects of service delivery, health workforce, information, medical products, vaccines and technologies, financing and governance and leadership), we carried out a comparative analysis of the impact of COVID-19 and the synthesis of the findings in responses in cancer care in 10 countries/jurisdictions across four continents comprising a wide diversity of health systems, geographical regions and socioeconomic status (China, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, India, Singapore, Sri Lanka, UK and Zambia). A combination of literature and document reviews and interviews with experts was used. Results: Our study revealed that: (i) underlying weaknesses of health systems before the pandemic were exacerbated by the pandemic (e.g. economic issues in low- and middle-income countries led to greater shortage of medication and resource constraints compounded by inadequacies of public financing and issues of engagement with stakeholders and leadership/governance);(ii) no universal adaptive strategies were applicable to all the systems, highlighting the need for health systems to design emergency plans based on local context;(iii) despite the many differences between health systems, common issues were identified, such as the lack of contingency plan for pandemics, inadequate financial policies for cancer patients and lack of evidence-based approaches for competing priorities of cancer care/pandemic control. Conclusion: We identified four key points/recommendations to enhance the resilient capacity of cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic and other system stressors: (i) effective pandemic control approaches in general are essential to maintain the continuity of cancer care during the emergency health crises;(ii) strong health systems (with sufficient cancer care resources, e.g. health workforce, and universal health coverage) are fundamental to maintain quality care;(iii) the ability to develop response strategies and adapt to evolving evidence/circumstances is critical for health system resilience (including introducing systematic, consistent and evidence-based changes, national support and guidance in policy development and implementation);(iv) preparedness and contingency plans for future public health emergencies, engaging the whole of society, to achieve health system resilience for future crises and to transform healthcare delivery beyond the pandemic.

5.
Tropical Parasitology ; 12(2):105-112, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2202137

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the target of elimination of lymphatic filariasis by 2015, a few districts of West Bengal including Bankura district failed to achieve it. Under-coverage and unsupervised consumption of medicines during mass drug administration (MDA) campaign were implicated for the failure. Thereby, directly observed therapy (DOT) and mop up by repeated home visits for MDA were adopted. Objective(s): The objective of this study is to assess the coverage of anti-filarial medicines distribution and rate of consumption as well as to find out the causes of nonconsumption. Material(s) and Method(s): A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sub-centers each of three blocks and three wards of Bankura municipality of Bankura district, WB, India, selected through the stratified random sampling method. Information was collected interviewing inhabitants of the house hold selected through the systematic random sampling technique. Result(s): Overall, appropriate medicine distribution was 82.9% with 95.3% of correct consumption of both medicines under supervision. 91.87% of the respondents were aware about Lymphatic filariasis (LF) of which 89.95% reported swelling of leg/foot/hand, 9.57% as pain, 6.22% fever, and 1.44% reported swelling of testis as symptoms of LF. Altogether 10.6% individual, who consumed any medicine (527), reported AEs, out of that 66.1%, 19.6%, and 14.3% complained of dizziness/headache, nausea/vomiting, and drowsiness, respectively, and 28.6% of them sought consultation with health workers. Conclusion(s): Substantial supervised consumption in the form DOT in this round too leads to the fact that the effective coverage of MDA has reached the target. It seemed that some segment of the beneficiary is remaining as persistent noncomplaints. Mass mobilization for motivating this persistent defaulter section is the need of the hour. Copyright © 2022 Authors. All rights reserved.

6.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 44(2):103702, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2158378

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of 0.1 % w/w Liposomal Amphotericin-B gel with 10 % w/w Povidone-Iodine and saline nasal douching in preventing revision surgery in patients with CAM. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-arm, parallel randomized control trial. STUDY SETTING: The trial was conducted in the Department of ENT, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Bhubaneswar. METHODS: Participants: Microbiologically and histologically proven cases of mucormycosis who underwent surgical debridement were included in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Postoperatively, patients were randomized into three groups based on the type of topical intervention received, in the form of Lipid-based Amphotericin B gel, povidone‑iodine ointment or saline nasal douching. OUTCOME: Requirement of revision surgery in postoperative cases of CAM. RANDOMIZATION: Participants were allotted to one of the three arms by block randomization. BLINDING: Single-blinded trial. RESULTS: Numbers randomized: 15 participants were randomized to each group. Recruitment: Completed recruiting. Numbers analyzed: 15 participants were analyzed in each group. OUTCOMES: Control arm's risk of revision surgery was 4.50 (95 % CI: 1.16-17.44) times than Lipid-based Amphotericin B gel arm and 1.50 (95 % CI: 0.71-3.16) times that of the Povidone- Iodine arm. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02) for Amphotericin but not for Povidone-Iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Topical Amphotericin-B gel application in the postoperative cavity can decrease the need for revision surgery and help in early recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2021/10/037257. Clinical Trials Registry of India.

7.
Innovation in Small-Farm Agriculture: Improving Livelihoods and Sustainability ; : 53-62, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2154181

ABSTRACT

The vulnerability of the highly contagious coronavirus pandemic has bushwhacked the entire world and crippled the global development to a state of tremendous medical emergency. All the vital sectors of society such as the agriculture, industry, trade, and economics, education have perceived serious blows. The medical research for suitable medications is underway;however, patient history reveals that a highly immune body can bear the infection without any morbidity or mortality. This phenomenon brings forward the necessity of research and policy enactment for ensuring a nutrition-sensitive agricultural system. Soil serving as the medium of crop growth, also inculcates several researchable issues like carbon sequestration, balanced fertilization, bio-fortification, composting and rearing beneficial microbes, wastewater treatment, soil pollution remediation, and remote-sensing-based land capability studies. The post COVID-19 period soil research should integrate other agricultural disciplines to strive for the coveted sustainable goal of a hunger-free world where food and nutrition security persists for disease resilience. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Amitava Rakshit, Somsubhra Chakraborty, Manoj Parihar, Vijay Singh Meena, P.K. Mishra, H.B. Singh;individual chapters, the contributors.

8.
Australian Journal Of General Practice ; 51(12):952-957, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 million Australians have had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The waves of infection in the population have been succeeded by smaller waves of people affected by persistent illness following acute infection. Post-COVID-19 symptoms may extend for months following infection. There is a range of symptoms causing mild to debilitating impairment.

9.
Medical Mycology ; 60(SUPP 1):114-114, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123097
11.
Medical Mycology ; 60(SUPP 1):111-111, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123095
12.
Medical Mycology ; 60(SUPP 1):108-+, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123094
13.
Journal of Education Culture and Society ; 13(2):119-136, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102337

ABSTRACT

Aim. The study aims to scan through the public institutional policy implementation in tackling the global pandemic and framing universal policies for responsible governance. It also measures the impact of training interventions and non-training implications in containing the spread of COVID-19 at the grassroots level. Methods. The samples were drawn empirically from pathological tests conducted over 23 weeks to precisely examine the success of the State Government's approach in lowering COVID-19 mortality and spread. Through trend analysis, the outcome has been predicted. The study establishes a link between acknowledged ideas and government practices, providing insight into how relevant the implementation of planned state-craft programs is. Results. The findings indicated that government-imposed policies account for timely pandemic containment, and even a tiny developing state lacking advanced medical facilities and technology can set an example in combating the epidemic. Conclusions. The temporal analysis is based on the inputs acquired from government publications and other sources, allowing us to assess policy initiatives that encompass training interventions and non-training implications as prioritised by the State Government. The paper shows that a good emergency preparedness and response system is needed to prevent huge losses in any sector. This includes the already-struggling health sector, which India needs to put first to avoid more tragedies.

14.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(12): 1309-1313, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is a rapidly progressive disease with high mortality rates of about 60 per cent. The increasing incidence of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in coronavirus disease 2019 patients in India and worldwide has become a matter of concern owing to the case fatality rate. This study explored the use of low dose aspirin in decreasing the mortality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis. METHOD: This was a retrospective observational study. Patients suffering from post-coronavirus disease 2019 mucormycosis were included in the study. Each patient was treated with surgical debridement and systemic amphotericin B. Low dose aspirin was added, and mortality rates were compared with the patients who did not receive aspirin. RESULTS: The demographic data and rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis staging between the two groups were not significantly different. There was a statistically significant difference in mortality outcomes between the two groups (p = 0.029) and a 1.77 times higher risk of dying for patients not receiving aspirin. Kaplan-Meier survival indicated that patients receiving aspirin had better survival rates (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Low dose aspirin improves survival rates in coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement
15.
3rd International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Data Mining and Information Security, IEMIS 2022 ; 490:575-584, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059759

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this paper is to detect the infection rate of the SARS-Cov-2 virus among patients who are suffering from COVID with different symptoms. In this work, some data inputs from the intended patients (like contact with any COVID infected person and any COVID patient within 1 km.) are collected in the form of a questionnaire and then applied Naïve Bayes probabilistic technique to evaluate the probability of how much that patient is affected in this deadly virus. Following this process, we collect sample data of 80 patients and apply the proposed analysis process using the C programming language. This approach also shows the comparison for different test cases with respect to the feedbacks of actual patient data analysis. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

16.
Australian Journal of Primary Health ; 28(4):xlvi-xlvii, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058314

ABSTRACT

Background: Integrated health care, particularly between the broader health care system and primary care can ease the patient journey, improve outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. The rise of both Primary Health Networks and Advanced Health Research and Translation Centres in Australia expands the requirement for Australia's Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs) to incorporate a focus on integration. However little is known about the ways in which PBRNs can help align and coordinate different parts of the health care system. Aim/Objectives: To conduct a scoping review to examine how PBRNs have been used to foster integrated care across the healthcare system. Method(s): Our scoping review used the PRISMA-ScR framework and was based on Valentijn's conceptual framework for integrated care. Two independent reviewers used CovidenceTM to search titles, s, and full texts in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus. We sought to identify peer-reviewed empirical studies conducted since 2000 that examined collaboration between PBRNs and the broader healthcare system. We excluded studies that solely used PBRNs for recruitment and those restricted to a single practice. Finding(s): We identified 3022 articles, of which 74 studied primary care PBRNs. Of these, 13 focussed on 'integrated care.' The studies documented collaboration between primary care and a wide range of professions and organisations. Only one explored integration at a clinical, organisational and system level, and few showed how collaborations could be established or maintained. Most prioritised population health rather than clincial care. Implications: While system integration is beginning to be explored as PBRNs evolve, there is a paucity of information on how PBRNs form and foster integration between primary care and the broader healthcare system. An improved understanding of the role of PBRNs in integration is important given the focus on system integration and sustainability within Australia's new 10 Year Plan for primary health care.

17.
The Covid-19 Pandemic, India and the World: Economic and Social Policy Perspectives ; : 109-128, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055843

ABSTRACT

Mortality shocks associated with pandemics differentially affect economies. In advanced countries, where human capital is a key input in aggregate production, an adverse mortality shock not only results in loss of lives, but also results in loss of productive assets (intangible human capital). In poorer economies, one the other hand, where production depends more on tangible inputs like land and physical capital, the effect of mortality shocks is muted: loss of lives is not necessarily accompanied by loss of assets. At the same time, weak health infrastructure, high population density and limited flexibility in production organization in poorer countries imply faster spread of the disease and, therefore, a shock of greater magnitude. These two counteracting mechanisms imply a non-monotonic relationship between disease and growth dynamics. We develop a model of endogenous growth to understand this relationship and highlight the short- and long-term effects of the Covid-19 epidemic shock. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Rajib Bhattacharyya, Ananya Ghosh Dastidar and Soumyen Sikdar;individual chapters, the contributors.

18.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042601

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 2, September 22, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Objective: Multiple infections can occur after 2009, pandemic influenza, including fungal and bacterial infections, but data from India are limited. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of influenza-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA), caused by Aspergillus tamarii, after infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 which was preceded by COVID-19, 20 months before. Methods and Results: A 33-year-old male, known asthmatic, had been hospitalized elsewhere in August 2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia for 50 days and had been on mechanical ventilation for 37 days. He had no residual respiratory symptoms 3 months after recovery from COVID-19. He was admitted to Jupiter Hospital in April 2022 with fever, cough, and dyspnea for 8 days, which developed after a cold bath in a temple. HRCT (chest) showed ground glass opacities (GGOs), crazy paving, nodules, and traction bronchiectasis. Review of previous HRCT showed that only GGOs were present (Fig. 1).At admission, the nasopharyngeal swab was positive for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the filmarray respiratory panel and no other pathogen was detected. He was treated with oseltamivir. Expectorated sputum examination showed a heavy load of thin septate hyphae, with acute angle branching, resembling Aspergilllus species (Fig. 2). Serum galactomannan was positive (1.8). Based on these features he was diagnosed as a case of probable IAPA and initiated posaconazole (PCZ) treatment. Sputum fungal culture was positive and was identified by MALDI TOF MS as A. tamarii. A. tamarii has been rarely encountered as a human pathogen. Case reports of its involvement in eyelid infection, keratitis, invasive sinonasal infection, and onychomycosis exist. Sensititre MICs were 0.0625 mcg/ml, 0.125 mcg/ml, 0.0625 mcg/ml, and 0.125 mcg/mL for itraconazole, voriconazole, PCZ, and for isavuconazole (ISVCZ) respectively.The usually obtained PCZ trough level with standard dose is 1.2 mg/l which generates AUC of 200R. The usually obtained ISVC) trough level with standard dose is 3 mg/l which generates AUC of 100R. The PKPD index, AUC/MIC of 100, is needed with both these azoles for a therapeutic effectR. Therefore, it would be possible to treat this infection with any of these azoles.PCZ was continued in view of the easy availability of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to assure adequate drug exposure, lower cost, and clinical improvement which had already occurred. Conclusion: An infection due to a rare Aspergillus species needs correct identification, MIC determination, and PKPD consideration for appropriate drug selection and management.

19.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042600

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 2, September 22, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Objective: We report a case of large pulmonary mycotic aneurysms with massive hemorrhage as an unusual complication of CAPA which required vascular radiological interventions along with appropriate antifungal treatment. Method and Results: A 71-year-old female patient had COVID-19 and was admitted elsewhere and she received steroids, aspirin, antibiotics, and fluconazole. Cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis started 3 weeks later which markedly worsened over 4 days, requiring emergency hospitalization due to shock, and she received a large number of packed RBCs. The chest CT scan revealed two large nodular opacities with central breakdown and CT pulmonary angiography revealed large mycotic aneurysms within the nodular opacities (Fig. 1).The important task at the moment of presentation was pulmonary artery embolization to arrest hemoptysis;which took precedence over the diagnosis and treatment of the likely infectious process. Both aneurysms were embolized using coils and vascular plugs resulting in their obliteration.Common causes of such nodules with central necrotic cavitation and formation of pseudoaneurysms are angioinvasive molds like Aspergillus and Mucorales. In the post-COVID-19 and post steroid setting in India, invasive Mucormycosis (IM) is thought to be more common than invasive Aspergillosis (IA). A mixed infection with these molds appears to be present in about 15% of the cases. Absence of DM or hyperglycemia was somewhat against a diagnosis of Mucormycosis. TB was considered less likely due to the imaging features and Nocardia was considered less likely due to the tempo of the illness and the severity of hemoptysis.Since the clinical distinction between Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis was not possible and posaconazole can be potentially useful for both, it was chosen for treatment in preference to voriconazole. Both amphotericin B and isavuconazole were in short supply at that time. Posaconazole was used for the patient intravenously followed by gastroresistant tablets. Expectorated sputum revealed narrow, septate, acute angle branching fungal hyphae. Therapeutic drug monitoring was used later to assure an adequate drug exposure. Serum galactomannan and BDG reports were received soon after and were 2.49 ODI (Optical density Index) and >523pg/ml respectively. The mold grew in culture as shown in and was identified by morphological features and by MALDI TOF MS as Aspergillus fumigatus (Fig. 2). Sensititre MIC to posaconazole was found to be 0.12 which is considered in the susceptible range.Despite these findings indicating IA, posaconazole was not replaced by voriconazole as IM could not be ruled out as part of a mixed infection. The patient showed clinical improvement, had no further hemoptysis, serum galactomannan turned negative and CT showed obliteration of the aneurysms. Conclusion: Posaconazole and isavuconazole may indeed emerge as good contemporary choices over voriconazole for IA and over amphotericin B for IM.This case adds to the clinical experience of using medical treatment with posaconazole as the sole drug and not undertaking surgery in cases such as these, due to certain extenuating circumstances.

20.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042599

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 2, September 22, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Objective: COVID-19-positive patients are at risk of invasive mold infection. The portal of entry is presumably the lungs, but infection may disseminate to involve other organs as described in this case series. Patients and Methods: Patients who presented with de novo mold infection (6 proven and 1 probable) involving kidney, spine, eye, knee joint, subcutaneous tissue within 10-180 days of COVID-19 infection were included in this series (Table 1). Conclusion: These cases suggest that metastatic infection by molds involving various organs could result from a presumed primary source in the lungs. However, the precise connection between pulmonary and metastatic infection is difficult to establish.COVID-19 patients should be carefully followed for such metastatic mold infections which need proper diagnosis and management.

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