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1.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 17: 101113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966421

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy is of considerable concern as it threatens the great potential of a vaccine against COVID-19. This study aims to determine factors associated with community health workers' willingness to participate in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine, and their vaccination intention, in India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 377 community health workers using self-administered anonymous questionnaire during the lockdown periods in India. Participant's socio-demographics, willingness-to-participate in COVID-19 vaccine trials, intention to accept COVID-19 vaccine were recorded in a Likert scale. Data were analysed descriptively, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with willingness to participate and accept the vaccine. Results: Among 377 CHWs, 70 (19%) intended to participate in COVID-19 vaccine trial, 151 (40%) responded positively regarding their intention to get vaccinated. Those with knowledge on development of COVID-19 vaccine [aOR 3.05 (95% CI: 1.18-7.88), p = 0.021], and men [aOR 3.69 (95% CI: 1.51-8.97), p = 0.004] were more willing to participate in clinical-trial, while an undergraduate degree, and trust in domestic vaccines were identified as deterrents for the same. Perceiving COVID-19 as risk [aOR 2.31 (95% CI: 1.24-4.31), p = 0.009], and male gender [aOR 2.39 (95% CI: 1.17-4.88), p = 0.017] were factors associated with intention to get vaccinated. Respondents who had knowledge about COVID-19 virus were less likely to uptake the hypothetical vaccine [aOR 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.88), p = 0.027]. Conclusions: Increasing knowledge regarding COVID-19 is not enough to improve vaccine acceptance rates. Targeted interventions addressing socio-demographic determinants related to COVID-19 vaccination should help improve acceptance.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 870880, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963604

ABSTRACT

Background: Responding to the fast transmission rates and increasing fatality rates, countries across the world expedited the development and deployment of the vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evaluation of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) would provide pertinent information regarding future demand and financing preferences, which shall help to devise the effective payment strategy for COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A nationwide, cross-sectional, and self-administered online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted to identify the sociodemographic determinants of willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in India. A non-probability convenience sampling followed by snowball sampling was employed to recruit participants (n = 3,341). The likelihood of sociodemographic determinants to predict willingness and extent to pay was modeled using the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of 3,371 participants, 68% (n = 2,271) were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. Results showed significantly higher odds for willingness to pay among participants who were single [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.394, p < 0.01] and having a family size of 4 members (aOR = 1.346, p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio sizably increased from 1.396 for participants whose monthly income was between INR 10,000 and 20,000/month to 2.240 for participants whose monthly income was above INR 50,000/month. Further, out of 2,271 of those participants who were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine, majority (n = 1,246, 54.9%) of participants were willingness to pay below 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. This study found that those who are single (aOR = 0.688, p < 0.01), having an income between INR 20,000 and 50,000/month (aOR = 0.686, p < 0.05), and those who belonged to socially disadvantaged category (aOR = 0.450, p < 0.01) were estimated to have significantly lower odds of willingness to pay more than 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. Conclusion: This study observed that majority of those participants who willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine were willingness to pay only up to 50% of COVID-19 vaccine and income was observed as a precursor predictor of the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. The understanding on the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine and its sociodemographic determinants will be helpful for making the strategic decisions related to the financing of COVID vaccine in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 806702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952356

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the success of adult vaccination against COVID-19, providing vaccines to children remains a challenge for policymakers globally. As parents are primary decision-makers for their children, we aimed to assess parents' perceptions and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in India. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was designed, parents or caregivers (N = 770) were recruited through snowball sampling using Google form. Cross-tabulation was performed by parents' intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 virus with sociodemographic characteristics and their risk perception toward COVID-19, trust in the healthcare system, and their history of vaccine hesitancy behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the predictors of child vaccination intention among Indian parents. Results: Seven hundred and seventy parents across the country have completed the survey. Of the 770 participants, 258 (33.5%) have shown intent to vaccinate their children. The stated likelihood of child vaccination was greater among parents who had a bachelor's degree or higher education (aOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-3.51); as well as among parents who intended to vaccinate themselves (aOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.67). Parental concerns centered around vaccine safety and side effects. Conclusion: Indian parents reported high knowledge of the COVID-19 virus and were aware of the development of a vaccine. However, about one-third of parents intended to vaccinate their children, and about half of them were not sure whether to vaccinate their children or not against the COVID-19 virus. The study highlighted the need for health promotion strategies that promote vaccine uptake among parents.

4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897914

ABSTRACT

Background Responding to the fast transmission rates and increasing fatality rates, countries across the world expedited the development and deployment of the vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evaluation of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) would provide pertinent information regarding future demand and financing preferences, which shall help to devise the effective payment strategy for COVID-19 vaccination. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional, and self-administered online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted to identify the sociodemographic determinants of willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in India. A non-probability convenience sampling followed by snowball sampling was employed to recruit participants (n = 3,341). The likelihood of sociodemographic determinants to predict willingness and extent to pay was modeled using the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Results Out of 3,371 participants, 68% (n = 2,271) were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. Results showed significantly higher odds for willingness to pay among participants who were single [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.394, p < 0.01] and having a family size of 4 members (aOR = 1.346, p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio sizably increased from 1.396 for participants whose monthly income was between INR 10,000 and 20,000/month to 2.240 for participants whose monthly income was above INR 50,000/month. Further, out of 2,271 of those participants who were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine, majority (n = 1,246, 54.9%) of participants were willingness to pay below 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. This study found that those who are single (aOR = 0.688, p < 0.01), having an income between INR 20,000 and 50,000/month (aOR = 0.686, p < 0.05), and those who belonged to socially disadvantaged category (aOR = 0.450, p < 0.01) were estimated to have significantly lower odds of willingness to pay more than 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. Conclusion This study observed that majority of those participants who willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine were willingness to pay only up to 50% of COVID-19 vaccine and income was observed as a precursor predictor of the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. The understanding on the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine and its sociodemographic determinants will be helpful for making the strategic decisions related to the financing of COVID vaccine in India.

5.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871496

ABSTRACT

Background Despite the success of adult vaccination against COVID-19, providing vaccines to children remains a challenge for policymakers globally. As parents are primary decision-makers for their children, we aimed to assess parents' perceptions and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in India. Methods A cross-sectional web-based study was designed, parents or caregivers (N = 770) were recruited through snowball sampling using Google form. Cross-tabulation was performed by parents' intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 virus with sociodemographic characteristics and their risk perception toward COVID-19, trust in the healthcare system, and their history of vaccine hesitancy behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the predictors of child vaccination intention among Indian parents. Results Seven hundred and seventy parents across the country have completed the survey. Of the 770 participants, 258 (33.5%) have shown intent to vaccinate their children. The stated likelihood of child vaccination was greater among parents who had a bachelor's degree or higher education (aOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.15–3.51);as well as among parents who intended to vaccinate themselves (aOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30–4.67). Parental concerns centered around vaccine safety and side effects. Conclusion Indian parents reported high knowledge of the COVID-19 virus and were aware of the development of a vaccine. However, about one-third of parents intended to vaccinate their children, and about half of them were not sure whether to vaccinate their children or not against the COVID-19 virus. The study highlighted the need for health promotion strategies that promote vaccine uptake among parents.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311259

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy is of considerable concern as it threatens the great potential of a vaccine against COVID-19. Community health workers (CHWs) bridge the gap between the community and the health care system. Their intention to get vaccinated will not only affect them but will also affect the community’s perception of the vaccine. This study aims to understand the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19 among community health care workers in India and its determinants. Methods: : A web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 357 community health workers using snowball sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was shared with study participants across major geographical regions in India through social media during the first wave (November-December 2020). Results: : Among 357 community health workers, 208 (58%) responded positively regarding their intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Graduate [aOR 2.26 (95% CI: 1.27-4.01), p=0.006] and post-graduate participants [aOR 2.85 (95% CI: 1.43-5.68), p=0.003], those with lower risk perception [aOR 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03-3.35), p=0.038] and respondents who trusted the healthcare system [aOR 2.60 (95% CI:1.59-4.26), p<0.001] were more likely to get vaccinated. Respondents who were exposed to COVID-19 cases were less likely to uptake the hypothetical vaccine [aOR 0.57 (95% CI: 0.34-0.96), p=0.034]. Conclusions: : Increasing knowledge regarding the COVID-19 vaccine might not be enough to improve vaccine acceptance rates. Enhancing trust among community health workers in the healthcare system and regarding the available vaccines seem necessary. In addition, targeted interventions addressing socio-demographic determinants related to COVID-19 vaccination should help improve acceptance of the vaccine.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605548

ABSTRACT

Background: Students act as messengers in delivering effective messages for better uptake of health-promoting behavior. Understanding their knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), intentions to use the COVID-19 vaccine, and its associated factors will help develop promising strategies in vaccine promotion concerning the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among students in the healthcare and non-healthcare sectors to assess their intentions to get vaccinated against the COVID-19. A non-probability snowball sampling technique was used to recruit study participants (N = 655) through social media platforms and emails. Study participants were recruited across the country, including six major geographical regions (Eastern, Western, Northern, Southern, North-east, and Central) in India between November 2020 and January 2021 before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine. Descriptive statistics were used to present the sociodemographic, and vaccine-related behaviors of the study participants. Key determinants that likely predict vaccine acceptance among students were modeled using logistic regression analysis. For each analysis, p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 655 students were recruited, 323 from healthcare and 332 from non-healthcare sectors, to assess their intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the 655 students, 63.8% expressed intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The acceptance was higher among non-healthcare students (54.07 vs. 45.93%). At the time of the study, 27.8% of the students indicated that they had been exposed to a confirmed COVID-19 patient. A vast majority (93.4%) of the students knew about the COVID-19 virus, and most (89.3%) of them were aware of the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The history of vaccine hesitancy was found to be low (17.1%). Only one-third (33.4%) of the students showed concern about contracting COVID-19. Trust in the healthcare system [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.13; (95% CI: 2.83-6.04), p < 0.00] and trust in domestic vaccines [aOR: 1.46; (95% CI: 1.02-2.08), p < 0.05] emerged as the significant predictors of student's intention to get vaccinated. Higher acceptance for vaccine was observed among students in the non-healthcare [aOR: 1.982; 95% CI: 1.334-2.946, p < 0.00]. Conclusion: This study shows that the Indian college students had relatively high levels of positive intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccines, although about one-third were not sure or unwilling to receive the vaccine, highlighting possible vaccine hesitancy. Informational campaigns and other strategies to address vaccine hesitancy are needed to promote uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination
8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(12): e34381, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Existing data on COVID-19 disparities among vulnerable populations portend excess risk for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and other persons outside of heteronormative and cisgender identities (ie, LGBT+). Owing to adverse social determinants of health, including pervasive HIV and sexual stigma, harassment, violence, barriers in access to health care, and existing health and mental health disparities, sexual and gender minorities in India and Thailand are at disproportionate risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease. Despite global health disparities among LGBT+ populations, there is a lack of coordinated, community-engaged interventions to address the expected excess burden of COVID-19 and public health-recommended protective measures. OBJECTIVE: We will implement a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, peer-delivered eHealth intervention to increase COVID-19 knowledge and public health-recommended protective behaviors, and reduce psychological distress among LGBT+ people residing in Bangkok, Thailand, and Mumbai, India. Subsequent to the RCT, we will conduct exit interviews with purposively sampled subgroups, including those with no intervention effect. METHODS: SafeHandsSafeHearts is a 2-site, parallel waitlist-controlled RCT to test the efficacy of a 3-session, peer counselor-delivered eHealth intervention based on motivational interviewing and psychoeducation. The study methods, online infrastructure, and content were pilot-tested with LGBT+ individuals in Toronto, Canada, before adaptation and rollout in the other contexts. The primary outcomes are COVID-19 knowledge (index based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] items), protective behaviors (index based on World Health Organization and US CDC guidelines), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-2), and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2). Secondary outcomes include loneliness, COVID-19 stress, and intended care-seeking. We will enroll 310 participants in each city aged 18 years and older. One-third of the participants will be cisgender gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men; one-third will be cisgender lesbian, bisexual, and other women who have sex with women; and one-third will be transfeminine, transmasculine, and gender nonbinary people. Participants will be equally stratified in the immediate intervention and waitlist control groups. Participants are mainly recruited from online social media accounts of community-based partner organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, or mobile phone. SafeHandsSafeHearts involves 3 sessions delivered weekly over 3 successive weeks. Exit interviews will be conducted online with 3 subgroups (n=12 per group, n=36 in each city) of purposively selected participants to be informed by RCT outcomes and focal populations of concern. RESULTS: The RCT was funded in 2020. The trials started recruitment as of August 1, 2021, and all RCT data collection will likely be completed by January 31, 2022. CONCLUSIONS: The SafeHandsSafeHearts RCT will provide evidence about the effectiveness of a brief, peer-delivered eHealth intervention developed for LGBT+ populations amid the COVID-19 pandemic. If the intervention proves effective, it will provide a basis for future scale-up in India and Thailand, and other low- and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04870723; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04870723. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/34381.

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