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BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 731, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038663


BACKGROUND: The current study investigated the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) knowledge and positive aspects of caregiving (PAC), in addition, how caregiving attitude and self-efficacy mediate or moderate this relationship. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine formal caregivers (51males and 178females) who has worked in nursing homes for more than a month were recruited.With a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey, structural questionnaires were implemented to evaluate formal caregiver's BPSD knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and PAC.A 13-item self-developed questionnaire was used to assess caregiver's BPSD knowledge about disease characteristics, care and risks, and treatment needs. Dementia attitude, self-efficacy and positive aspects of caregiving were measured by dementia attitude scale, the General self-efficacy scale, and Chinese version of positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Model 5 in the PROCESS micro was employed in order to verify the mediating effect of attitude and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between BPSD knowledge and PAC. RESULTS: The results showed that greater BPSD knowledge was associated with increased PAC, and this relationship was fully mediated by increased friendly attitude toward people with dementia. Moreover, direct effect was moderated by self-efficacy, and that only among those with high self-efficacy, the direct effect of BPSD knowledge was found on promoting PAC. CONCLUSIONS: By elucidating the knowledge-attitude-practice pathway in handling patient's BPSD, the current study extends existing literature and provides insights for developing psychoeducation programs among formal caregivers.

Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
Brain Behav Immun ; 95: 381-390, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188318


BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that exercise protects against cognitive decline in aging, but the recent lockdown measures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have limited the opportunity for outdoor exercise. Herein we tested the effects of an indoor exercise, Qigong, on neurocognitive functioning as well as its potential neuro-immune pathway. METHODS: We conducted a 12-week randomized active-controlled trial with two study arms in cognitively healthy older people. We applied Wu Xing Ping Heng Gong (Qigong), which was designed by an experienced Daoist Qigong master, to the experimental group, whereas we applied the physical stretching exercise to the control group. The Qigong exercise consisted of a range of movements involving the stretching of arms and legs, the turning of the torso, and relaxing, which would follow the fundamental principles of Daoism and traditional Chinese medicine (e.g., Qi). We measured aging-sensitive neurocognitive abilities, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and brain structural volumes in the experimental (Qigong, n = 22) and control groups (stretching, n = 26) before and after the 12-week training. RESULTS: We observed that Qigong caused significant improvement in processing speed (t (46) = 2.03, p = 0.048) and sustained attention (t (46) = -2.34, p = 0.023), increased hippocampal volume (t (41) = 3.94, p < 0.001), and reduced peripheral IL-6 levels (t (46) = -3.17, p = 0.003). Moreover, following Qigong training, greater reduction of peripheral IL-6 levels was associated with a greater increase of processing speed performance (bootstrapping CI: [0.16, 3.30]) and a more significant training-induced effect of hippocampal volume on the improvement in sustained attention (bootstrapping CI: [-0.35, -0.004]). CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings offer significant insight into the mechanistic role of peripheral IL-6-and its intricate interplay with neural processes-in the beneficial neurocognitive effects of Qigong. The findings have profound implications for early identification and intervention of older individuals vulnerable to cognitive decline, focusing on the neuro-immune pathway. The trial was registered at (identifier: NCT04641429).

COVID-19 , Qigong , Aged , Cognition , Communicable Disease Control , Hippocampus , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2