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Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7832, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320255


This study evaluates the association between antivirals (Molnupiravir and Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir) and all-cause and respiratory mortality and organ dysfunction among high-risk COVID-19 patients during an Omicron outbreak. Two cohorts, Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir versus control and Molnupiravir versus control, were constructed with inverse probability treatment weighting to balance baseline characteristics. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association of their use with all-cause mortality, respiratory mortality, and all-cause sepsis (a composite of circulatory shock, respiratory failure, acute liver injury, coagulopathy, and acute liver impairment). Patients recruited were hospitalized and diagnosed with the COVID-19 Omicron variant between February 22, 2022 and April 15, 2022, and followed up until May 15, 2022. The study included 17,704 patients. There were 4.67 and 22.7 total mortalities per 1000 person-days in the Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence rate ratio, - 18.1 [95% CI - 23.0 to - 13.2]; hazard ratio, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.11-0.29]). There were 6.64 and 25.9 total mortalities per 1000 person-days in the Molnupiravir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence rate ratio per 1000 person-days, - 19.3 [95% CI - 22.6 to - 15.9]; hazard ratio, 0.23 [95% CI 0.18-0.30]). In all-cause sepsis, there were 13.7 and 35.4 organ dysfunction events per 1000 person-days in the Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence rate ratio per 1000 person-days, - 21.7 [95% CI - 26.3 to - 17.1]; hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI 0.38-0.52]). There were 23.7 and 40.8 organ dysfunction events in the Molnupiravir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence ratio per 1000 person-days, - 17.1 [95% CI, - 20.6 to - 13.6]; hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI 0.58-0.69]). Among COVID-19 hospitalized patients, use of either Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir or Molnupiravir compared with no antiviral use was associated with a significantly lower incidence of 28-days all-cause and respiratory mortality and sepsis.

COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Multiple Organ Failure , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
The Lancet regional health. Western Pacific ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046979


Background Real-world data is currently limited on the association between oral antiviral therapy and healthcare system burden in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. This study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of Molnupiravir and Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir use in reducing mortality in this population. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study involving 54,355 COVID-19 patients during February 22–March 31,2022 in Hong Kong. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to adjust patient characteristics. Our exposure of interest was Molnupiravir/Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir prescription, with all-cause mortality as the primary outcome. IPTW-adjusted multivariate regressions were used to estimate treatment impact on clinic re-attendance and unplanned admissions. Finally, attributed cost and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated. Findings In the outpatient cohort (N = 33,217, 61.1%), 16.1% used Molnupiravir and 13.4% used Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir, while in the inpatient cohort (N = 21,138, 38.9%), 3.8% used Molnupiravir and 1.3% used Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir. IPTW-adjusted Cox model estimated that Molnupiravir (hazard ratio (HR)(95%CI)=0.31 (0.24-0.40), P< 0.0001) and Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir (HR=0.10 (95%CI 0.05-0.21), P< 0.0001) were significantly associated with a reduced mortality hazard. In the outpatient cohort, both antiviral prescriptions were associated with reduced odds for unplanned hospital admissions (Molnupiravir: odds ratio (OR) =0.72 (0.52-0.98), P=0.039;Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir: OR=0.37 (0.23-0.60), P<0.0001). Among hospitalised patients, both antiviral prescriptions were associated with significant reductions in the odds ratios for 28-days readmission (Molnupiravir: OR=0.71 (0.52-0.97), P=0.031;Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir: OR=0.47 (0.24-0.93), P=0.030). ICERs for death averted for Molnupiravir stood at USD493,345.09 in outpatient settings and USD2,629.08 in inpatient settings. In outpatient settings, Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir cost USD331,105.27 to avert one death, but saved USD5,502.53 to avert one death in comparison with standard care. Interpretation In high-risk patients in Hong Kong with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, Molnupiravir and Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir prescriptions were associated with reduced all-cause mortality and significant cost savings. Funding Centre for Health Systems & Policy Research is funded by The Tung's Foundation;and The Laboratory of Data Discovery for Health Limited(D24H) is funded the AIR@InnoHK platform administered by the Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong. Funders did not have any role in study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation and writing of this manuscript.