Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 36
Filter
1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736908

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness and can lead to hospitalization and even death. Understanding how comorbidities affect the severity of influenza can help clinical management. The aim of this study is to offer more information about comorbidities that might be associated with the severity of influenza in children. We used a statewide network in Rhode Island, USA, to extract data for laboratory-confirmed influenza cases among children 19 years old or younger. We identified 1169 lab-confirmed influenza cases. The most common comorbidities were asthma (17.1%), neurodevelopmental disorders (10.3%), gastrointestinal disorders (7.6%), atopic dermatitis (7%), and endocrine and metabolic diseases (6.8%). Interestingly, 80.8% (63 out of 78) of children who had an influenza-related hospital admission had at least one comorbidity, and among hospitalized children with influenza, the most common comorbidities were neurological diseases (28.2%, 22/78), gastrointestinal disorders (25.6%, 20/78), endocrine and metabolic diseases (24.4%, 19/78), and neurodevelopmental disorders (23.1%, 18/78). Children with endocrine or metabolic diseases were 8.23 times more likely to be admitted to the hospital, and children with neurological disorders were 6.35 times more likely to be admitted (OR: 8.23, 95% CI: 4.42-15.32 and OR: 6.35, 95% CI: 3.60-11.24, respectively). In summary, we identified specific comorbidities associated with influenza hospitalization and length of hospital stay, and these groups should be prioritized for public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Adult , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Young Adult
2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(3): 580-587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Understanding and identifying disparities in COVID-19 testing outcomes can help allocate resources to where they are most needed. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) identity and SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. METHODS: Data were from the Rhode Island SARS-CoV-2 surveillance database and included tests scheduled from June 8, 2020, through January 15, 2021. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations accounting for repeat testing to estimate the odds of receiving a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 by LGBTQ+ identity and race/ethnicity, adjusting for sociodemographic and temporal confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable analysis of 232 025 tests, LGBTQ+ people had lower odds of receiving a positive test result than cisgender heterosexual people (5.4% vs 8.7%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59-0.68). Compared with cisgender heterosexual White people, LGBTQ+ White people were significantly less likely (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73) and cisgender heterosexual people of color were significantly more likely (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.64-1.78) to receive a positive test result. LGBTQ+ people of color had similar test positivity (aOR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79-1.02) as cisgender heterosexual White people. People in sexual minority groups were significantly less likely than heterosexual people to receive a positive test result, but we found no significant differences in test results among cisgender, transgender, and gender nonconforming people. CONCLUSIONS: LGBTQ+ people may be less likely than heterosexual people to receive a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, potentially related to protective health practices and greater social isolation. Addressing racial and ethnic disparities among both LGBTQ+ people and cisgender heterosexual people should be a priority of the public health workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender Identity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
5.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 7: 100159, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-emergent clinical services were limited or suspended during the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States (U.S.). This could adversely impact epidemics of public health importance, such as HIV, and access to testing, which is a cornerstone of prevention efforts. METHODS: In this observational study, we collected HIV testing and positivity rate clinical data from four geographically diverse U.S. healthcare systems in New Orleans, Louisiana; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Providence, Rhode Island; and, Seattle, Washington. Data from 2019 to 2020 were examined to assess changes in HIV testing in community-based, emergency department, and outpatient settings. Poisson regression was used to explore trends in HIV testing through phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: In outpatient settings, there was a 68-97% reduction in the number of HIV tests per week during each state's stay-at-home order period, compared to during the pre-stay-at-home order period in early 2020. HIV testing remained reduced 11-54% after states transitioned to advisory phases. The HIV positivity rate increased slightly at outpatient settings, except in New Orleans where it fell. INTERPRETATION: We found a concerning trend of substantially decreased HIV testing across four geographically diverse sites. These findings suggest that new HIV infections within the U.S. may be undiagnosed and not yet linked to clinical care and services, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, augmented efforts to identify patients and link them to HIV services will be needed as healthcare settings return to full operation. FUNDING: U.S. National Institute of Mental Health.

6.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(12): 2443-2454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568435

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of few FDA-approved treatments for severe cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To better assess its efficacy and safety, we conducted a meta-analysis to systematically identify and synthesize existing findings. We conducted a comprehensive literature search among six electronic databases and unpublished studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to summarize the risk ratio (RR) and rate estimates from eligible studies. Funnel plots, the Egger test, and the trim and fill analysis were used to detect publication bias. Thirteen eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, giving a pooled sample size of 10,002 COVID-19 hospitalized patients (5068 administered remdesivir; 4934 control). Among patients on remdesivir, we synthesized mortality (15%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9%, 22%), clinical improvement (64%, 95% CI: 51%, 78%), recovery (70%, 95% CI: 57%, 83%), hospital discharge (74%, 95% CI: 60%, 87%), serious adverse effect (SAE) (21%, 95% CI:13%, 29%), and Grade 3 or 4 adverse effect (AE) (30%, 95% CI: 12%, 48%). Patients on remdesivir were 17% (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.06) less likely to die than those within the control group. Additionally, remdesivir had favorable outcomes in terms of clinical improvement, recovery, and hospital discharge. Lastly, non-mechanically ventilated patients had better overall clinical outcomes than mechanically ventilated patients. Remdesivir shows a moderate-favorable treatment efficacy among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with disproportionate impact among non-mechanically ventilated patients; however, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients may suffer from SAE or Grade 3 or 4 AE during the treatment course. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42399-021-01014-y.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1873-1877, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545974

ABSTRACT

We estimated the distributions of duration of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid shedding and time to reinfection among 137 persons with at least 2 positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results from March to September 2020. We analyzed gaps of varying length between subsequent positive and negative NAAT results and estimated a mean duration of nucleic acid shedding of 30.1 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.3-34.5). Mean time to reinfection was 89.1 days (95% CI, 75.3-103.5). Together, these indicate that a 90-day period between positive NAAT results can reliably define reinfection in immunocompetent persons although reinfection can occur at shorter intervals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , Health Personnel , Reinfection , Virus Shedding , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 virus testing among first responders and healthcare personnel who participated in a May-August 2020 serosurvey which assessed spike protein antibodies (S1 region) provided an opportunity to assess reinfection. METHODS: Serology survey data were merged with virus testing results from Rhode Island (March 1, 2020-February 17, 2021) and New York City (March 10-December 14, 2020). Participants with a positive virus test ≥14 days before their serology test were included. Reinfection was defined as a second positive SARS-CoV-2 test result ≥90 days after the first positive test. The association between serostatus and reinfection was assessed with a proportional hazards model adjusting for demographics, exposures, and virus testing frequency. RESULTS: Among 1,572 previously infected persons, 40 (2.5%) were reinfected. Reinfection differed by serostatus: 8.4% among seronegative versus 1.9% among seropositive participants (p<0.0001). Most reinfections occurred among Rhode Island nursing home and corrections (RINHC) personnel (n=30) who were most frequently tested (mean 30.3 tests versus 4.6 for other Rhode Island and 2.3 for New York City participants). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for reinfection in seropositive versus seronegative persons was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20, 0.81). Exposure to a household member with COVID-19 before the serosurvey was also protective (aHR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13, 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Reinfections were uncommon among previously infected persons over a 9-month period that preceded widespread variant circulation. Seropositivity decreased reinfection risk. Lower reinfection risk associated with exposure to a household member with COVID-19 before the serosurvey may reflect subsequently reduced household transmission among members of previously infected households.

9.
JMIRx Med ; 2(3): e30176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The largest outbreaks of COVID-19 in the United States have occurred in correctional facilities, and little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine campaigns among incarcerated people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe a statewide vaccination program among incarcerated people and staff working in a prison setting. METHODS: Between December 2020 and February 2021, the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) offered the opportunity for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to all correctional staff and sentenced individuals. Two RIDOC public health educators provided education on the vaccine, answered questions, and obtained consent before the vaccine clinic day for the incarcerated group. All staff received information on signing up for vaccines and watched an educational video that was created by the medical director. Additional information regarding vaccine education and resources was sent via email to the entire RIDOC department. RESULTS: During this initial campaign, 76.4% (1106/1447) of sentenced individuals and 68.4% (1008/1474) of correctional staff accepted and received the vaccine. Four months after the first vaccine was offered, 77.7% (1124/1447) of the sentenced population and 69.6% (1026/1474) of staff were fully vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of vaccine implementation in a carceral setting. Education and communication likely played an important role in mitigating vaccine refusals.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 871, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemic projections and public health policies addressing Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 have been implemented without data reporting on the seroconversion of the population since scalable antibody testing has only recently become available. METHODS: We measured the percentage of severe acute respiratory syndrome- Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositive individuals from 2008 blood donors drawn in the state of Rhode Island (RI). We utilized multiple antibody testing platforms, including lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and high throughput serological assays (HTSAs). To estimate seroprevalence, we utilized the Bayesian statistical method to adjust for sensitivity and specificity of the commercial tests used. RESULTS: We report than an estimated seropositive rate of RI blood donors of approximately 0.6% existed in April-May of 2020. Daily new case rates peaked in RI in late April 2020. We found HTSAs and LFAs were positively correlated with ELISA assays to detect antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 in blood donors. CONCLUSIONS: These data imply that seroconversion, and thus infection, is likely not widespread within this population. We conclude that IgG LFAs and HTSAs are suitable to conduct seroprevalence assays in random populations. More studies will be needed using validated serological tests to improve the precision and report the kinetic progression of seroprevalence estimates.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Rhode Island/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Social Sciences ; 10(10):377, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1463803

ABSTRACT

Greater demand for quality post-secondary education has been seen in Asia, particularly in China. Many Western countries have seen a rise in international education. Increasingly, schools in Australia are embracing internationalisation policies, leading to an increase in international student enrolment before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. International students in school education are something of a little-understood issue for educational scholars, policy makers and the general public. Leadership is seen as pivotal in the success of schools’ internationalisation program. By applying a mixed-method approach to collect data from an online Qualtrics survey and semi-structured interviews with independent school leaders in Australia, this paper reports how school leaders understand Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) international students’ linguistic, cultural and educational contributions to schools, and their experience in supporting the international students to adapt into the new educational environments through various programs and strategies. This article also advocates that it is vital to respect the international students’ educational subjectivities generated in their “home” countries when providing support programs to help them engage with new educational contexts in “host” nations.

14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2445-2449, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369630

ABSTRACT

We developed a testing program for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in an urban Latinx neighborhood in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Approximately 11% of Latinx participants (n = 180) tested positive. Culturally tailored, community-based programs that reduce barriers to testing help identify persons at highest risk for coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Medically Underserved Area , Rhode Island/epidemiology
15.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 162, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When three SARS-CoV-2 vaccines came to market in Europe and North America in the winter of 2020-2021, distribution networks were in a race against a major epidemiological wave of SARS-CoV-2 that began in autumn 2020. Rapid and optimized vaccine allocation was critical during this time. With 95% efficacy reported for two of the vaccines, near-term public health needs likely require that distribution is prioritized to the elderly, health care workers, teachers, essential workers, and individuals with comorbidities putting them at risk of severe clinical progression. METHODS: We evaluate various age-based vaccine distributions using a validated mathematical model based on current epidemic trends in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. We allow for varying waning efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity, as this has not yet been measured. We account for the fact that known COVID-positive cases may not have been included in the first round of vaccination. And, we account for age-specific immune patterns in both states at the time of the start of the vaccination program. Our analysis assumes that health systems during winter 2020-2021 had equal staffing and capacity to previous phases of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic; we do not consider the effects of understaffed hospitals or unvaccinated medical staff. RESULTS: We find that allocating a substantial proportion (>75%) of vaccine supply to individuals over the age of 70 is optimal in terms of reducing total cumulative deaths through mid-2021. This result is robust to different profiles of waning vaccine efficacy and several different assumptions on age mixing during and after lockdown periods. As we do not explicitly model other high-mortality groups, our results on vaccine allocation apply to all groups at high risk of mortality if infected. A median of 327 to 340 deaths can be avoided in Rhode Island (3444 to 3647 in Massachusetts) by optimizing vaccine allocation and vaccinating the elderly first. The vaccination campaigns are expected to save a median of 639 to 664 lives in Rhode Island and 6278 to 6618 lives in Massachusetts in the first half of 2021 when compared to a scenario with no vaccine. A policy of vaccinating only seronegative individuals avoids redundancy in vaccine use on individuals that may already be immune, and would result in 0.5% to 1% reductions in cumulative hospitalizations and deaths by mid-2021. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming high vaccination coverage (>28%) and no major changes in distancing, masking, gathering size, hygiene guidelines, and virus transmissibility between 1 January 2021 and 1 July 2021 a combination of vaccination and population immunity may lead to low or near-zero transmission levels by the second quarter of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Resource Allocation/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccination , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , Rhode Island/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/supply & distribution
16.
AIDS Behav ; 25(11): 3754-3757, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265522

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a public health crisis that has fundamentally altered health care provision. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care. We reviewed all patient records for those who presented for PrEP care at a PrEP program in Providence, Rhode Island from September 1st, 2019 to May 29th, 2020. The number of PrEP encounters decreased but was not significantly different over time (ps > .05). Patients were still able to access PrEP clinical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Implementing flexible and timely PrEP delivery approaches in this setting likely minimized the disruption of PrEP care during COVID-19.


RESUMEN: COVID-19 es una crisis de salud pública que ha alterado fundamentalmente la prestación de servicios de salud. El propósito de este estudio fue examinar el impacto de COVID-19 en los servicios de la profilaxis preexposición (PrEP). Revisamos todos los registros de pacientes que se presentaron para recibir atención de PrEP en un programa de PrEP en Providence, Rhode Island desde el 1 de septiembre de 2019 hasta el 29 de mayo de 2020. El número de encuentros de PrEP disminuyó pero no fue significativamente diferente con el paso del tiempo (ps > .05). Los pacientes aún pudieron acceder a los servicios clínicos de PrEP durante la pandemia de COVID-19. La implementación de enfoques de entrega de PrEP que eran flexibles y oportunos en este entorno probablemente minimizó la interrupción de la atención médica de la PrEP durante COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
AIDS Behav ; 26(1): 69-75, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265521

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sexual behavior, mental health, and substance use among men who have sex with men (MSM) engaged in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care. Generalized linear mixed models and logistic mixed-effect models examined change over time for number of sexual partners, mood, and alcohol consumption. From February 29, 2020 to July 31, 2020, 177 MSM actively engaged in PrEP care were evaluated. The median age was 37 [interquartile range (IQR 30, 51]. Patients in the sample were largely representative of the clinic population and identified as White (73.0%), Black/African American (9.2%), and other race (17.2%), and 11.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Men reported an average of 2.60 fewer sexual partners (95% CI -4.04, -1.40) during the pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19. Rates of depressive symptoms and alcohol use remained stable and few patients reported substance use. The reduced number of sexual partners may be explained by patients' efforts to reduce risk of exposure to COVID-19 and low rates of psychosocial symptoms may be indicative of only the highest functioning patients continuing to engage in care. Reductions in sexual partners may offset reduced engagement in care and help mitigate risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).


RESUMEN: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto que tuvo la pandemia causada por la enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) en el comportamiento sexual, la salud mental y el uso de sustancias en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) que reciben profilaxis previa a la exposición (PrEP). Los modelos lineales mixtos generalizados y los modelos logísticos de efectos mixtos examinaron el cambio a través del tiempo en el número de parejas sexuales, el estado de ánimo y el consumo de alcohol. Desde el 29 de febrero de 2020 hasta el 31 de julio de 2020, se evaluaron 177 HSH que recibían los servicios de la PrEP. La mediana de edad fue de 37 (rango intercuartílico (IQR: 30, 51). Los pacientes de la muestra eran en gran parte representativos de la población de la clínica y se identificaban como Blancos (73.0%), Negros/Afroamericanos (9.2%) y de Otra raza (17.2%) y el 11.8% se identificó de origen Hispano/Latino. Los hombres reportaron un promedio de 2.60 parejas sexuales menos (IC del 95%: -4.04, -1.40) durante la pandemia en comparación con antes de COVID-19. Las tasas de síntomas depresivos y el uso de alcohol se mantuvieron estables y pocos pacientes reportaron uso de sustancias. El número reducido de parejas sexuales puede explicarse por los esfuerzos de los pacientes para reducir su riesgo de exposición al COVID-19 y las bajas tasas de síntomas psicosociales pueden ser indicativos de que solo los pacientes con mayor funcionamiento continúan participando. La reducción en el número de parejas sexuales puede contrarrestar la baja participación en la atención medica de la PrEP y ayudar a mitigar el riesgo de contraer el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 916-923, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196420

ABSTRACT

Serology testing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is increasingly being used during the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although its clinical and epidemiologic utilities are still debatable. Characterizing these assays provides scientific basis to best use them. The current study assessed one chemiluminescent assay (Abbott COVID-2 IgG) and two lateral flow assays (STANDARD Q [SQ] IgM/IgG Duo and Wondfo total antibody test) using 113 blood samples from 71 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients, 119 samples with potential cross-reactions, and 1068 negative controls including 942 pre-pandemic samples. SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies became detectable 3-4 days post-symptom onset using SQ IgM test and IgG antibodies were first detected 5-6 days post-onset using SQ IgG. Abbott IgG and Wondfo Total were able to detect antibodies 7 to 8 days post-onset. After 14 days post-symptom onset, the SQ IgG, Abbott IgG and Wondfo Total tests were able to detect antibodies from 100% of the PCR-confirmed patients in this series; 87.5% sensitivity for SQ IgM. Overall agreement was 88.5% between SQ IgM/IgG and Wondfo Total and 94.6% between SQ IgG and Abbott IgG. No cross-reaction due to recent sera with three of the endemic coronaviruses was observed. Viral hepatitis and autoimmune samples were the main source of limited cross-reactions. The specificities were 100% for SQ IgG and Wondfo Total, 99.62% for Abbott IgG, and 98.87% for SQ IgM. These findings demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of appropriately validated SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays with implications for clinical use and epidemiological seroprevalence studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(5): 2007-2016, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147601

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disproportionately affected vulnerable populations across the U.S. Street-based sex workers are one vulnerable population whose health and impact of COVID-19 have been understudied to date. The goal of this study was to evaluate findings from a community needs assessment with street-based sex workers on impact of COVID-19 on health behaviors and social circumstances. A brief survey was developed at a community-based harm reduction and recovery services organization. Surveys were administered by peer specialists to street-based sex workers during street outreach in April and May 2020. A total of 46 surveys were analyzed. Many individuals reported continuing to do sex work and use substances during the COVID pandemic. Slightly more than a quarter of individuals (n = 13; 28.3%) indicated using personal protective equipment while doing sex work and described challenges to using precautions when working with clients. Individuals had used marijuana (n = 32, 71.1%), cocaine (n = 17, 39.5%), prescription stimulants (n = 9, 21.4%), methamphetamines (n = 5, 11.9%), prescription opioids (n = 12, 27.3%), street opioids (n = 12, 27.3%), sedatives (n = 11, 25.0%), hallucinogens (n = 3, 6.8%), inhalants (n = 3, 7.0%), or some other substance (n = 4, 8.7%) in the past 30 days. About half (48.8%) reported that COVID-19 had a major impact on their lives. This study is among the first to characterize the impact of COVID-19 on street-based sex workers. From a public health standpoint, this group also represents a high-priority population given their vulnerability and close contact with others, which increases the potential for community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL