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1.
Npj Vaccines ; 7(1):161, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (Covid-19) pandemic have demonstrated the importantance of vaccines in disease prevention. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines could be another option for disease prevention if demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic. Phase 1 of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (N = 42) assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity in healthy young and older adults of ascending levels of one-dose ARCT-021, a self-amplifying mRNA vaccine against Covid-19. Phase 2 (N = 64) tested two-doses of ARCT-021 given 28 days apart. During phase 1, ARCT-021 was well tolerated up to one 7.5 mug dose and two 5.0 mug doses. Local solicited AEs, namely injection-site pain and tenderness were more common in ARCT-021vaccinated, while systemic solicited AEs, mainly fatigue, headache and myalgia were reported in 62.8% and 46.4% of ARCT-021 and placebo recipients, respectively. Seroconversion rate for anti-S IgG was 100% in all cohorts, except for the 1 mug one-dose in younger adults and the 7.5 mug one-dose in older adults. Anti-S IgG and neutralizing antibody titers showed a general increase with increasing dose, and overlapped with titers in Covid-19 convalescent patients. T-cell responses were also observed in response to stimulation with S-protein peptides. Taken collectively, ARCT-021 is immunogenic and has favorable safety profile for further development.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):7635, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160209

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation and infective exacerbations, however, in-vitro model systems for the study of host-pathogen interaction at the individual level are lacking. Here, we describe the establishment of nasopharyngeal and bronchial organoids from healthy individuals and COPD that recapitulate disease at the individual level. In contrast to healthy organoids, goblet cell hyperplasia and reduced ciliary beat frequency were observed in COPD organoids, hallmark features of the disease. Single-cell transcriptomics uncovered evidence for altered cellular differentiation trajectories in COPD organoids. SARS-CoV-2 infection of COPD organoids revealed more productive replication in bronchi, the key site of infection in severe COVID-19. Viral and bacterial exposure of organoids induced greater pro-inflammatory responses in COPD organoids. In summary, we present an organoid model that recapitulates the in vivo physiological lung microenvironment at the individual level and is amenable to the study of host-pathogen interaction and emerging infectious disease.

3.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore ; 49(6):415-416, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2114109
5.
Asia Pacific Scholar ; 7(4):35-49, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081454

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In-class engagement enhances learning and can be measured using observational tools. As the COVID-19 pandemic shifted teaching online, we modified a tool to measure the engagement of instructors and students, comparing in-person with online teaching and different class types. Methods: Video recordings of in-person and online teachings of six identical topics each were evaluated using our ‘In-class Engagement Measure’ (IEM). There were three topics each of case-based learning (CBL) and lecture-based instruction (LLC). Student IEM scores were: (1) no response, (2) answers when directly questioned, (3) answers spontaneously, (4) questions spontaneously, (5) initiates group discussions. Instructor IEM scores were: (1) addressing passive listeners, (2) asking ≥1 students, (3) initiates discussions, (4) monitors small group discussion, (5) monitoring whole class discussions. Results: Twelve video recorded sessions were analysed. For instructors, there were no significant differences in percentage time of no engagement or IEM scores when comparing in-person with online teaching. For students, there was a significantly higher percentage time of no engagement for the online teaching of two topics. For class type, there was overall less percentage time of no engagement and higher IEM scores for CBL than LLC. Conclusion: Our modified IEM tool demonstrated that instructors’ engagement remained similar, but students’ engagement reduced with online teaching. Additionally, more in-class engagement was observed in CBL. “Presenteeism”, where learners were online but disengaged was common. More effort is needed to engage students during online teaching. © 2022 TAPS. All rights reserved.

6.
International Journal of Urology ; 29:96-96, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067915
7.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10(T8):143-148, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused many lifestyle changes, especially in the diet. Policies such as physical distancing and quarantine orders aimed to mitigate to spread of COVID-19 have affected the economy and, therefore, the dietary habits of the people. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the associations between income levels and dietary habits during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 697 Indonesian adults from various regions in Indonesia. The study was conducted from June to August 2020. Data were obtained through a self-administered online questionnaire including dietary habits, lifestyles, and quality of life data adapted from MyNutriLifeCOVID-19 online survey. To analyze the associations between income levels and dietary habits during the COVID-19 pandemic, a Chi-square test was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: Respondents had mean age of 27.56 ± 8.58 years and the majority were women (83.6%). The percentage of people with large-scale social restrictions was 47.5%. Respondents reported that their dietary habits were healthier during the pandemic (46.2%), with the majority categorized as high-and very high-income status (59.1%). From self-reported of the people in Indonesia, there was association between high-income level and selfperceived healthier dietary habits. Higher-income level was also associated with higher frequency of online food/ drink delivery, consuming western diet foods, consuming dietary supplements, and probiotic consumption (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the dietary habits of people with a very high monthly income had eating healthier than before the pandemic. However, it is also related to higher energy, cholesterol, and saturated fat intakes due to consuming high western diet foods. Social inequalities in dietary intake should be considered through promoting a healthy balanced diet with affordable price and healthy food processing in the community.

8.
Journal of Chemical Education ; 99(5):1877-1889, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882734

ABSTRACT

Chemistry laboratory experiments are invaluable tostudents'acquisition of necessary synthetic, analytical, andinstrumental skills during their undergraduate studies. However,the COVID-19 pandemic rendered face-to-face (f2f), in-personteaching laboratory experiences impossible from late 2019-2020and forced educators to rapidly develop new solutions to deliverchemistry laboratory education remotely. Unfortunately, achievinglearning and teaching objectives to the same caliber of in-personexperiments is very difficult through distance learning. Toovercome these hurdles, educators have generated many virtual and remote learning options for not only foundational chemistrycourses but also laboratory experiments. Although the pandemic challenged high-level chemistry education, it has also created anopportunity for both students and educators to be more cognizant of virtual learning opportunities and their potential benefits withinchemistry curriculum. Irrespective of COVID-19, virtual learning techniques, especially virtual lab experiments, can complement f2flaboratories and offer a cost-efficient, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to their in-person counterparts.Implementation of virtual and distance learning techniques???including kitchen chemistry and at-home laboratories, prerecordedvideos, live-stream video conferencing, digital lab environment, virtual and augmented reality, and others???can provide a wide-ranging venue to teach chemistry laboratories effectively and encourage diversity and inclusivity in thefield. Despite their relevanceto real-world applications and potential to expand upon fundamental chemical principles, polymer lab experiments areunderrepresented in the virtual platform. Polymer chemistry education can help prepare students for industrial and academicpositions. The impacts of polymers in our daily life can also promote students'interests in science and scientific research. Hence, thetranslation of polymer lab experiments into virtual settings improves the accessibility of polymer chemistry education. Herein, weassess polymer experiments in the emergence of virtual learning environments and provide suggestions for further incorporation ofeffective polymer teaching and learning techniques into virtual settings

10.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E137-E145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can cause outbreaks in community- and hospital-based settings. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed epidemiologic account of a hospital-wide SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and provide a description of case evaluations, transmission networks and the interventions implemented to stem the outbreak. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of a hospital-wide SARS-CoV-2 outbreak at the Misericordia Community Hospital (Edmonton) from June 21 to Aug. 14, 2020. We reviewed hospital chart, public health and occupational health records to determine demographics, case type (community- or hospital-acquired), need for critical care and outcome for each case linked to the outbreak (patients, hospital staff, and community and patient visitors). We developed detailed transmission networks using epidemiologic data to determine what variables may have contributed to transmission. RESULTS: Fifty-eight cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were linked to this hospital outbreak (31 patients, 25 staff members and 2 visitors; 66% female, age range 19-97 years). One patient required critical care, and 11 deaths were recorded (all among inpatients). Most cases were hospital-acquired (91%), and 28% were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The outbreak was composed of 2 clusters driven by protective equipment breaches, premature removal of precautions, transmission in small staff quarters and infection of a staff member after exposure to a wandering patient with dementia and asymptomatic, undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: A detailed epidemiologic review of this hospital-wide outbreak shows that a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak can involve complex transmission chains and clusters. Multipronged bundled approaches, aggressive contact tracing, and patient and staff prevalence screening are important to help bring such outbreaks under control, along with ongoing vigilance in detecting delayed cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance , Retrospective Studies
13.
Blood ; 138:1942, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582416

ABSTRACT

The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on outcomes in patients with cancer remains unclear. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)/high-risk myelodysplasia (MDS) are common hematological malignancies resulting in profound immunosuppression, which is exacerbated by intensive and less-intensive chemotherapy. Importantly, venetoclax based regimens have been increasingly used during the pandemic as a strategy to reduce patient hospitalization however, there is little information concerning the impact of such regimens on COVID-19 infection rates. We therefore opened a prospective clinical study (PACE), at the start of the current pandemic in April 2020 to characterize the risk of COVID-19 infection in patients with AML/MDS-EB2 receiving intensive or non-intensive treatment, including patients treated with venetoclax-based regimens. The primary aim was to determine the incidence of COVID-19 in patients with AML /MDS-EB2 including both, prior to study entry and during treatment until 4 weeks after the last cycle of treatment. Secondary aims were to: characterize the presentation of COVID-19;define the severity and type of both non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 infections;and undertake an exploratory analysis to quantify the incidence of COVID-19 infection in patients receiving (less-intensive) venetoclax based regimens. All analysis conducted to date has been descriptive. 211/230 recruited patients had full treatment histories available, of whom 116 patients received intensive chemotherapy and 95 low intensity regimens. 48 patients received a venetoclax-based regimen. The median age of the non-intensive treatment arm was 72 years;(range 19.1-86.5) and of the intensive arm was 59 years (range 16.1-76.1). There were more cases of secondary AML and relapsed disease in the non-intensive arm as compared to the intensive arm. 25/226 evaluable patients tested positive for COVID-19 as defined by positive SARS-CoV2 PCR test, 10 with a prior diagnosis at study entry and 15 tested positive during the study. The incidence of COVID-19 infection for patients with AML/MDS-EB2 was 11.1% (90%CI: 7.8%-15.1%) (Table). A lower proportion of patients (n=6/91 6.6%) undergoing non-intensive treatment suffered COVID-19 as compared to those undergoing more intensive chemotherapy regimens (n=19/116, 16.4%). Specifically, only 3/48 (6.3%) patients undergoing a venetoclax regimen were infected with SARS-CoV2. The most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19 in this study, regardless of the intensity of chemotherapy, was fever and cough with 6/25 patients asymptomatic. The risk of death at 30 days following study entry in patients who had prior COVID-19 infection or who contracted COVID-19 during this period was 13.6%, compared to 3.9% in the overall cohort without COVID-19 infection. There was a lower incidence of non-COVID-19 related infections in patients receiving venetoclax-based regimens, n=43 infections in 24 (50.0%) of patients;with 313 infections in 94 (81%) of intensively treated patients. The overall occurrence of non-COVID-19 infection in the non-intensive arm was 87 infections in 50 (54.9%) patients. Our multi-center study provides real-world estimates for the incidence and presentation of COVID-19 infection in a cohort of patients with AML/MDS-EB2, and indicates a higher risk of death at 30 days in patients with prior COVID-19 infection prior to, or during treatment. Venetoclax based, and other non-intensive, regimens, increasingly implemented during the pandemic, to minimize patient exposure and reduce usage of hospital beds, appeared to be associated with a low incidence of COVID-19. Further follow-up will be required to understand the long-term impact of this strategy. Analysis of immune responses to COVID-19 infection and vaccination is on-going. Acknowledgments: This study was funded by Cure Leukaemia under the Trials Acceleration Program (TAP), and grants from BMS and Blood Cancer UK. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Loke: Novartis: Other: Travel;Janssen: Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria;Pfizer: Honoraria;Daichi Sankyo: Other: Travel. K apper: Pfizer: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Astellas: Ended employment in the past 24 months, Speakers Bureau;Jazz: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Khan: Abbvie: Honoraria;Astellas: Honoraria;Takeda: Honoraria;Jazz: Honoraria;Gilead: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria. Dillon: Amgen: Other: Research support (paid to institution);Astellas: Consultancy, Other: Educational Events, Speakers Bureau;Menarini: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Session chair (paid to institution), Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: educational events;Jazz: Other: Education events;Abbvie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Research Support, Educational Events;Shattuck Labs: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Culligan: AbbVie Ltd: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Celgene Ltd: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Gilead: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Jazz Pharma: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda UK Ltd: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. McMullin: Bristol Myers Squibb: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: clinical trial support, Research Funding;Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;AbbVie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;AOP Orphan: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Murthy: Abbvie: Other: support to attend educational conferences. Craddock: Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Other: Advisory Board;Celgene/BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.

14.
Critical Research on Religion ; : 19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1496098

ABSTRACT

Incidents of racism against Asians have been rising since the COVID-19 pandemic turned global in early 2020. Employing Foucault's concept of panopticism and Kathryn Lofton's insights on the function of religion to demarcate group boundaries, this article argues that American religion constructs Asian American stereotypes to limit the discursive space within which Asian Americans may negotiate their identities. These discursive limitations have, in turn, buttressed white supremacy. This article examines how some Asians and Asian Americans respond to anti-Asian sentiments during the pandemic by performing a close reading of an op-ed by prominent Asian American politician Andrew Yang in The Washington Post. This reading reveals that Yang's colorblind solution upholds whiteness as the American gnosis and limits the discursive space in which Asian Americans may negotiate their identities. This article also discusses how the myth of America as a white Christian country withstands challenges from minority groups contesting its dominance.

15.
International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML) ; 139, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1431520

ABSTRACT

Microfluidic biochips are being utilized for clinical diagnostics, including COVID-19 testing, because they provide sample-to-result turnaround at low cost. Recently, microelectrode-dot-array (MEDA) biochips have been proposed to advance microfluidics technology. A MEDA biochip manipulates droplets of nano/picoliter volumes to automatically execute biochemical protocols. During bioassay execution, droplets are transported in parallel to achieve high-throughput outcomes. However, a major concern associated with the use of MEDA biochips is microelectrode degradation over time. Recent work has shown that formulating droplet transportation as a reinforcement-learning (RL) problem enables the training of policies to capture the underlying health conditions of microelectrodes and ensure reliable fluidic operations. However, the above RL-based approach suffers from two key limitations: 1) it cannot be used for concurrent transportation of multiple droplets;2) it requires the availability of CCD cameras for monitoring droplet movement. To overcome these problems, we present a multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) droplet-routing solution that can be used for various sizes of MEDA biochips with integrated sensors, and we demonstrate the reliable execution of a serial-dilution bioassay with the MARL droplet router on a fabricated MEDA biochip. To facilitate further research, we also present a simulation environment based on the PettingZoo Gym Interface for MARL-guided droplet-routing problems on MEDA biochips.

16.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(9): 1064-1069, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop and cross-validate self-administered Rapid Geriatric Assessment (SA-RGA) app against administered Rapid Geriatric Assessment (A-RGA) to identify seniors with geriatric syndromes such as frailty, sarcopenia, and anorexia of ageing who may benefit from targeted intervention. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Primary Care and Community. PARTICIPANTS: A-RGA and SA-RGA app were administered to older adults ≥ 60 years old from December 2020 to April 2021. MEASUREMENTS: The RGA app screens for frailty (FRAIL), sarcopenia (SARC-F), anorexia of aging (SNAQ) and cognition (Rapid Cognitive Screen) with assisted management pathway. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 is administered for those who score positive for fatigue. The diagnostic performance of SA-RGA was compared against A-RGA as a reference by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and positive likelihood ratio (+LR). RESULTS: 123 participants with a mean age of 71 ± 5.9 years completed both the SA-RGA and A-RGA. Questions on fatigue, 5 or more illnesses, loss of weight and falls in the past year performed better with high sensitivity, specificity, NPV and +LR than self-functional assessment where SA-RGA participants reported lower prevalence on the FRAIL scale aerobic and resistance components, and higher prevalence on the SARC-F strength and rising from a chair components. CONCLUSION: The SA-RGA app performed well in certain domains such as assessment for weight loss, falls, number of chronic illness and fatigue. Self-functional assessment can be improved further by removing ambiguity in wordings such as "some" or "a lot" and replacing it with functional difficulty scale. SA-RGA has the potential to be incorporated in the eHEALTH platforms worldwide for early identifications of older adults at risk and to reduce health inequalities, at the same time building community resilience in the era of Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Sarcopenia , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Bjog-an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ; 128:190-190, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1269017
18.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; 50(2):126-134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139115

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the impact of public health measures on paediatric emergency department attendances during the COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks in Singapore. METHODS: Between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020, we retrospectively reviewed paediatric emergency department attendances and admissions in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore before and after a national lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19 in Singapore. Hospital attendances and admissions were compared with data from a corresponding period in 2019 (1 January 2019 to 31 July 2019), as well as during and after the SARS outbreak (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004). RESULTS: Compared with a corresponding non-outbreak period, emergency department attendances decreased in line with nationwide public health measures during the COVID-19 and SARS outbreaks (2020 and 2003 respectively), before increasing gradually following lifting of restrictions, albeit not to recorded levels before these outbreaks. During the COVID-19 outbreak, mean daily attendances decreased by 40%, from 458 per day in January-July 2019, to 274 per day in January-July 2020. The absolute number of hospital inpatient admissions decreased by 37% from January-July 2019 (19,629) to January-July 2020 (12,304). The proportion of emergency department attendances requiring admission remained similar: 20% in January-July 2019 and 21% in January-July 2020. CONCLUSION: Nationwide public health measures in Singapore have had an impact on paediatric emergency department attendances and hospital inpatient admissions. Data from this study could inform planning and resource allocation for emergency departments in Singapore and internationally.

19.
Sustainability ; 13(4):15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1129773

ABSTRACT

In order to break through the dual impacts of lower birth rates and COVID-19, a majority of higher education institutions have commenced in providing a series of diversified Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to effectively reduce these huge dual impacts. This research employed the Social Learning Theory (SLT) of educational doctrine for theoretical uses and the Factor Analysis (FA) approach of quantitative analysis and Trigonometrical Entropy Method (TEM) method of qualitative analysis for statistically purposes. These concepts were employed to explore the most critical social-media connection of global literacy abilities in MOOC. After a succession of assessed measurements, there are two most valuable findings. First, higher education institutions have to simultaneously and efficiently institute the Course Complete Rate of Course Assessment (CCR-CA), User Completely Unrestricted Operation of Course Operation (UCUO-CO) and Course Professionalization Technology Function of Course Function (CPTF-CF) into the course's design. Specifically, higher education institutions need to establish MOOCs features in Course Evaluation Technology Function (CETF), Course Professionalization Technology Function (CPTF) and Aggregation Technology Function (ATF) of MOOCs features into the current MOOCs. This is done in order to effectively promote the Individual Social Feature (ISF) of "social-media connection of global literacy abilities" for overcoming these serious dual impacts. In addition, higher education institutions have to also construct the social-media connection of global literacy abilities evaluation model for appraising Individual Social Feature (ISF) of each MOOCs participant. Second finding, higher education institutions should develop Convenience of Course Operation (C-CP), Feedback Technology Function of Basic Function (FTF-BF) and Connectionization of Course Operation (C-CO) of higher education strategies of developed sustainability into the course's structure. Further, they should also build Connectionization (CZ) of MOOCs features into the current MOOCs in order to efficiently foster Application Programming Interface (API) of social-media connection of global literacy abilities for conquering these serious dual impacts as well.

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