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1.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326897

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in southern Africa has been characterised by three distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, whilst the second and third waves were driven by the Beta and Delta variants respectively1–3. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function4. Here, we describe the genomic profile and early transmission dynamics of Omicron, highlighting the rapid spread in regions with high levels of population immunity.

2.
McCrone, J. T.; Hill, V.; Bajaj, S.; Pena, R. E.; Lambert, B. C.; Inward, R.; Bhatt, S.; Volz, E.; Ruis, C.; Dellicour, S.; Baele, G.; Zarebski, A. E.; Sadilek, A.; Wu, N.; Schneider, A.; Ji, X.; Raghwani, J.; Jackson, B.; Colquhoun, R.; O'Toole, Á, Peacock, T. P.; Twohig, K.; Thelwall, S.; Dabrera, G.; Myers, R.; Faria, N. R.; Huber, C.; Bogoch, I. I.; Khan, K.; du Plessis, L.; Barrett, J. C.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barclay, W. S.; Chand, M.; Connor, T.; Loman, N. J.; Suchard, M. A.; Pybus, O. G.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Martinez Nunez, R. T.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Estee Torok, M.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Spencer Chapman, M. H.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Fryer, H.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Alikhan, N. F.; Bridgett, S.; Cook, K. F.; Fearn, C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; El Bouzidi, K.; Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326827

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases1-3. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions4,5. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,649 global genomes to reconstruct the emergence of Delta, and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England, in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Through analysis of human movement, contact tracing, and virus genomic data, we find that the focus of geographic expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced >1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers from India reduced onward transmission from importations;however the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England had been already seeded before restrictions were introduced. In England, increasing inter-regional travel drove Delta's nationwide dissemination, with some cities receiving >2,000 observable lineage introductions from other regions. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing, not the number of importations, was associated with faster relative growth of Delta. Among US states, we find that regions that previously experienced large waves also had faster Delta growth rates, and a model including interactions between immunity and human behaviour could accurately predict the rise of Delta there. Delta's invasion dynamics depended on fine scale spatial heterogeneity in immunity and contact patterns and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce transmission of current and future VOCs such as Omicron.

3.
Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Nunez, R. T. M.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Torok, M. E.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Chapman, M. H. S.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Fearn, N. C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; Bouzidi, K. El, Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; Harrison, I.; Gifford, L.; Molnar, Z.; Auckland, C.; Evans, C.; Johnson, K.; Partridge, D. G.; Raza, M.; Baker, P.; Bonner, S.; Essex, S.; Murray, L. J.; Lawton, A. I.; Burton-Fanning, S.; Payne, B. A. I.; Waugh, S.; Gomes, A. N.; Kimuli, M.; Murray, D. R.; Ashfield, P.; Dobie, D.; Ashford, F.; Best, A.; Crawford, L.; Cumley, N.; Mayhew, M.; Megram, O.; Mirza, J.; Moles-Garcia, E.; Percival, B.; Driscoll, M.; Ensell, L.; Lowe, H. L.; Maftei, L.; Mondani, M.; Chaloner, N. J.; Cogger, B. J.; Easton, L. J.; Huckson, H.; Lewis, J.; Lowdon, S.; Malone, C. S.; Munemo, F.; Mutingwende, M.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326811

ABSTRACT

The scale of data produced during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been unprecedented, with more than 5 million sequences shared publicly at the time of writing. This wealth of sequence data provides important context for interpreting local outbreaks. However, placing sequences of interest into national and international context is difficult given the size of the global dataset. Often outbreak investigations and genomic surveillance efforts require running similar analyses again and again on the latest dataset and producing reports. We developed civet (cluster investigation and virus epidemiology tool) to aid these routine analyses and facilitate virus outbreak investigation and surveillance. Civet can place sequences of interest in the local context of background diversity, resolving the query into different 'catchments' and presenting the phylogenetic results alongside metadata in an interactive, distributable report. Civet can be used on a fine scale for clinical outbreak investigation, for local surveillance and cluster discovery, and to routinely summarise the virus diversity circulating on a national level. Civet reports have helped researchers and public health bodies feedback genomic information in the appropriate context within a timeframe that is useful for public health.

4.
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems ; 14:82-88, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1610083

ABSTRACT

Tourism industry is very vast, dynamic and growth-oriented industry which is associated with several other sectors such as hospitality, education, finance, agriculture, transport, medical, real estate etc. The whole socio-economic structure has become still due to global pandemic of novel Corona (COVID-19) which has emerged as a big challenge for the globalization and worldwide operations of enterprises. This problem has led to almost entire shutdown, which ultimately affected the human life, business and economic growth immensely and may exist for both short & long duration depends as the things progress. Major adverse impact has been observed on the Indian hospitality industry struggling with very less demand along with very few upcoming reservations. Effectively, all momentary demands have diminished entirely, except those guests who have been staying for long and the hotels which have been recommended by the government for the stay of international passengers returning back to India. Implementation of Section-144, where mass gathering is prohibited, deferment of Visas, & the lockdown in India and their influences seem to be a big challenge. To combat the socio-economic impacts of this pandemic, Government is making appropriate plans to set up a COVID-19 squad to commence essential measures. Since, tourism industries is among the largest and fastest growing industries world-widely and it is considered to play crucial role in retrieving the socio-economic stability after this pandemic situation. Keeping these points in mind, the present article focuses on the challenges faced by tourism and hospitality industry due to COVID-19 and implementation of strategies to cope up the situation. © 2021 Publishing India Group. All rights reserved.

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