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Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci ; 2022: 3742318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113196


The in silico method has provided a versatile process of developing lead compounds from a large database in a short duration. Therefore, it is imperative to look for vaccinations and medications that can stop the havoc caused by SARS-CoV-2. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is required for the viral entry into the host cells, hence inhibiting the virus from fusing and infecting the host. This study determined the binding interactions of 36 flavonoids along with two FDA-approved drugs against the spike protein receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) approach was used to calculate the binding-free energy (BFE). Flavonoids were selected based on their in vitro assays on SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Our pharmacokinetics study revealed that cyanidin showed good drug-likeness, fulfilled Lipinski's rule of five, and conferred favorable toxicity parameters. Furthermore, MD simulations showed that cyanidin interacts with spike protein and alters the conformation and binding-free energy suited. Finally, an in vitro assay indicated that about 50% reduction in the binding of hACE2 with S1-RBD in the presence of cyanidin-containing red grapes crude extract was achieved at approximately 1.25 mg/mL. Hence, cyanidin may be a promising adjuvant medication for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein based on in silico and in vitro research.