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1.
ARYA Atherosclerosis ; 17(6):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND During ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation and lockdown measures were implemented to prevent spread of virus which created enormous challenges to patient healthcare. In order to overcome these challenges, teleconsultation (telecardiology) was initiated. Objective of this study was to assess outcome of telecardiology using audio/visual/audio-visual consultation among patients with implantable cardiac devices. METHODS Telecardiology was performed (either physician-initiated or patient-initiated) among 1200 patients over a five-month period (July 13 to December 13, 2020) to review health status of patients to decide further course of treatment and to access their satisfaction level with telecardiology. RESULTS Teleconsultation was cardiologist- and patient-initiated in 1042 (86.8%) and 158 (13.2%) cases, respectively. 1117 (93.2%) patients were stable, while scheduled admission, urgent hospitalization, and death were noted in 20 (1.8%), 45 (3.9%), and 18 (1.5%) patients, respectively. Next visit was rescheduled in 986 (82.2%), while 127 (10.6%) were called earlier because of battery depletion. Majority (n = 1077, 89.8%) were satisfied. CONCLUSION Telecardiolgy is an effective option during COVID-19 to minimize interpersonal contact, spread of disease, psychological stress, and burden on already stretched healthcare.

2.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827102

ABSTRACT

The effects of coronavirus are not just physical but also psychological in all age groups and more so common among children. Some children may have had experience of quarantine restrictions during this COVID-19 pandemic. Due to increased digital connections 'emotional contagion' where the distress and fear experienced by one spread to another person may also be common in children. The present study aims to determine whether COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown has caused stress and affected mental health of children and youth. The current study assessed stress in children and youth between 9 and 18 years age based on Short Self-Rating Questionnaire (SSRQ) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study design was an observational study,  a descriptive cross-sectional study using online survey. Total 369 schools children participated in the survey. Score Scale and analysis was done to categorize the stress levels as Low, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis based on the total score levels (Delhi+Mathura zone, n=369) showed 30.08% (n=111) students with Low stress level, 62.87% (n=232) within Moderate stress level and 7.08% (n=26) with severe stress level. Students T Test revealed that there was a significant difference (p≤0.04) of the stress level male vs. female in total (Delhi + Mathura zone combined). However, the stress level was not significantly different between Delhi and Mathura zone alone. It is utmost to give primary importance to address the stress issues in children and adoloscents in the current scenario. Inclusion of Intervention strategies that are empirically supported and culturally appropriate as per the need of the communities for children and families may be helpful. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02827-3.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(12): 1665-1676, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has spread substantially within India over multiple waves of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the risk factors and disease burden associated with COVID-19 in India remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess predictors of infection and mortality within an active surveillance study, and to probe the completeness of case and mortality surveillance. METHODS: In this prospective, active surveillance study, we used data collected under expanded programmatic surveillance testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the district of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India (population of 3 266 000 individuals). Prospective testing via RT-PCR was done in individuals with fever or acute respiratory symptoms as well as returning travellers, frontline workers, contacts of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, residents of containment zones, patients undergoing medical procedures, and other risk groups. Standardised data collection on symptoms and chronic comorbid conditions was done as part of routine intake. Additionally, seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G was assessed via a cross-sectional survey recruiting adults across 38 clusters within Madurai District from Oct 19, 2020, to Nov 5, 2020. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for positive RT-PCR results comparing individuals by age, sex, comorbid conditions, and aspects of clinical presentation. We estimated case-fatality ratios (CFRs) over the 30-day period following RT-PCR testing stratified by the same variables, and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for death associated with age, sex, and comorbidity. We estimated infection-fatality ratios (IFRs) on the basis of age-specific seroprevalence. RESULTS: Between May 20, 2020, and Oct 31, 2020, 13·5 diagnostic tests were done per 100 inhabitants within Madurai, as compared to 7·9 tests per 100 inhabitants throughout India. From a total of 440 253 RT-PCR tests, 15 781 (3·6%) SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified, with 8720 (5·4%) of 160 273 being positive among individuals with symptoms, and 7061 (2·5%) of 279 980 being positive among individuals without symptoms, at the time of presentation. Estimated aORs for symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed infection increased continuously by a factor of 4·3 from ages 0-4 years to 80 years or older. By contrast, risk of asymptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed infection did not differ across ages 0-44 years, and thereafter increased by a factor of 1·6 between ages 45-49 years and 80 years or older. Seroprevalence was 40·1% (95% CI 35·8-44·6) at age 15 years or older by the end of the study period, indicating that RT-PCR clinical testing and surveillance testing identified only 1·4% (1·3-1·6%) of all infections in this age group. Among RT-PCR-confirmed cases, older age, male sex, and history of cancer, diabetes, other endocrine disorders, hypertension, other chronic circulatory disorders, respiratory disorders, and chronic kidney disease were each associated with elevated risk of mortality. The CFR among RT-PCR-confirmed cases was 2·4% (2·2-2·6); after age standardisation. At age 15 years or older, the IFR based on reported deaths was 0·043% (0·039-0·049), with reported deaths being only 11·0% (8·2-14·5) of the expected count. INTERPRETATION: In a large-scale SARS-CoV-2 surveillance programme in Madurai, India, we identified equal risk of asymptomatic infection among children, teenagers, and working-age adults, and increasing risk of infection and death associated with older age and comorbidities. Establishing whether surveillance practices or differences in infection severity account for gaps between observed and expected mortality is of crucial importance to establishing the burden of COVID-19 in India. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20153643

ABSTRACT

Although most COVID-19 cases have occurred in low-resource countries, there is scarce information on the epidemiology of the disease in such settings. Comprehensive SARS-CoV-2 testing and contact-tracing data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh reveal stark contrasts from epidemics affecting high-income countries, with 92.1% of cases and 59.7% of deaths occurring among individuals <65 years old. The per-contact risk of infection is 9.0% (95% confidence interval: 7.5-10.5%) in the household and 2.6% (1.6-3.9%) in the community. Superspreading plays a prominent role in transmission, with 5.4% of cases accounting for 80% of infected contacts. The case-fatality ratio is 1.3% (1.0-1.6%), and median time-to-death is 5 days from testing. Primary data are urgently needed from low- and middle-income countries to guide locally-appropriate control measures.

5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104432, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614101

ABSTRACT

The genetic code contains information that impacts the efficiency and rate of translation. Translation elongation plays a crucial role in determining the composition of the proteome, errors within a protein contributes towards disease processes. It is important to analyze the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) at the codon level to find similarities and variations in hosts to compare with other human coronavirus (CoVs). This requires a comparative and comprehensive study of various human and zoonotic nature CoVs relating to codon usage bias, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), proportions of slow codons, and slow di-codons, the effective number of codons (ENC), mutation bias, codon adaptation index (CAI), and codon frequencies. In this work, seven different CoVs were analyzed to determine the protein synthesis rate and the adaptation of these viruses to the host cell. The result reveals that the proportions of slow codons and slow di-codons in human host of 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV found to be similar and very less compared to the other five coronavirus types, which suggest that the 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV have faster protein synthesis rate. Zoonotic CoVs have high RSCU and codon adaptation index than human CoVs which implies the high translation rate in zoonotic viruses. All CoVs have more AT% than GC% in genetic codon compositions. The average ENC values of seven CoVs ranged between 38.36 and 49.55, which implies the CoVs are highly conserved and are easily adapted to host cells. The mutation rate of 2019-nCoV is comparatively less than MERS-CoV and NL63 that shows an evidence for genetic diversity. Host-specific codon composition analysis portrays the relation between viral host sequences and the capability of novel virus replication in host cells. Moreover, the analysis provides useful measures for evaluating a virus-host adaptation, transmission potential of novel viruses, and thus contributes to the strategies of anti-viral drug design.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus/genetics , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Composition , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Code , Humans , Phylogeny , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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