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1.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: External ventricular drain (EVD)-associated cerebrospinal fluid infection (EACI) remains a major complication associated with EVD. Length of EVD tunnel, an overlooked but modifiable factor, can be associated with increased risk of EACI. The aim of this study is to find the tunnel length associated with least chances of EACI by performing a network meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of different databases was performed to retrieve studies that studied the rates of EACI with different EVD tunnel lengths and a Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the network meta-analysis. With 0 cm tunnel length as reference, the odds ratio (OR) for developing EACI was minimum for tunnel length 5-10 cm (OR, 0.027). It was followed by tunnel length of 5 cm (OR, 0.060) and 10 cm (OR, 0.075). The surface under the cumulative ranking curve plot showed that the probability of the tunnel length 5-10 cm (ranked first), 5 cm (ranked second), and 10 cm (ranked third) for being the best EVD tunnel length was found to be 86%, 64%, and 61%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The length for which an EVD is tunneled may have an impact on the rate of EACI. Our network meta-analyses showed that the tunnel length of 5-10 cm was associated with the lowest rates of EACI, with 86% probability of being the best EVD tunnel length. The probability of a patient with 5-10 cm EVD length developing EACI was 2.7% compared with zero tunnel length.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(6): 509-519, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298914

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily manifests in the form of respiratory symptoms, emerging evidence suggests that the disease is associated with numerous neurological complications, such as stroke and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Hence, further research is necessary to seek possible therapeutic targets in the CNS for effective management of these complications. AREAS COVERED: This review examines the neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections and the possible routes of infection. It progresses to illuminate the possible therapeutic targets for effective management of these neuromodulatory effects and the repurposing of drugs that could serve this purpose. To this end, literature from the year 1998-2021 was derived from PubMed. EXPERT OPINION: The neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19 may be related to poor prognosis and higher comorbidity. Identification of the key molecular targets in the brain that are potential indicators of the observed neuropathology, such as inflammatory mediators and chromatin modifiers, is key. The repurposing of existing drugs to target potential candidates could reduce the mortality attributed to these associated neurological complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e635-e644, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We present the unique administrative issues as well as specific patient-related and surgeon-related challenges and solutions implemented while treating neurosurgical patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic vis-à-vis pre-COVID-19 times at our tertiary-care center. METHODS: This is a retrospective study comparing the outcome of the neurosurgical patients treated from the beginning of lockdown in India on March 25, 2020 to November 30, 2020 with that of same period in the previous year, 2019. RESULTS: There were 687 neurosurgery admissions during the study period compared with 2550 admissions in 2019. The total number of surgeries performed in neurosurgery also showed a similar trend, with only 654 surgeries in 2020 compared with 3165 surgeries in 2019. During COVID-19 times, 474 patients were operated on including both trauma and nontrauma cases. Of the 50 patients with suspected/indeterminate COVID-19 who were operated on, 5 turned out to be positive for COVID-19. Significant differences were seen in the mortality (P < 0.01) and morbidity (P < 0.01) among patients with trauma on comparing COVID and pre-COVID periods. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the mortality (P < 0.001) and morbidity (P < 0.001) in patients who did not have trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The higher mortality and morbidity during the COVID pandemic is primarily attributable to poorer baseline clinical status. Our experience from this COVID period might not only help us in tackling subsequent waves but also help other institutions in the developing world to be better prepared for similar circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
5.
Neurol India ; 69(2): 344-351, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teleconsultation services in India, especially in neurosurgery, are relatively new. Despite its large-scale adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic, comprehensive analyses of patients' perspectives and hurdles are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an anonymized telephonic survey of consecutive neurosurgical patients who availed telemedicine services at our institute, using a validated, structured questionnaire. To prevent bias, interviewers were not involved in the study design/analyses. Patients' perception of usefulness and performance of teleconsultation was graded on a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Of the 330 patients who availed teleconsultation services, 231 (70%) completed the survey. Even though 91% of the respondents had access to a smartphone, only 10% received a video-based teleconsult. As per respondents, the challenges included poor network (7%), suboptimal communication/discussion (5.6%), lack of physical examination (6%), and misinterpretation of prescription by pharmacists/patients (6%). The majority of the respondents (58%) either agreed/strongly agreed that teleconsultation helped them tide over the medical exigency during the lockdown; however, the clinical diagnosis did not influence this response (P = 0.21). The vast majority of the respondents felt that teleconsultation is beneficial (97%), as it minimizes their exposure to COVID-19. One-third of the patients preferred this service over physical visits and 60% agreed to its continuation till resumption of routine care. Access to video-teleconsultation was the chief suggestion in 39 of 74 suggestions received. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine in neurosurgery offers favorable patient satisfaction during this pandemic and may be a satisfactory alternative to physical outpatient services in the future. Video-based teleconsults should be the preferred modality of communication for neurosurgery patients.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Pandemics , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Care Surveys , Humans , India/epidemiology
6.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(10): 3219-3224, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173901

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced hospitals to prioritize admissions. Epilepsy surgeries have been postponed at most centers. As the pandemic continues with no definite end in sight in the near future, the question arises until when such patients should be denied appropriate treatment. A 12-year-old child with left-sided Rasmussen's encephalitis with drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) presented at the height of the pandemic, with worsening of seizure frequency from 4-5/day to 20/day, with new-onset epilepsia partialis continua. She demonstrated features of progressive cognitive decline. The pros and cons of operating during the pandemic were discussed with the parents by a multidisciplinary team. She underwent endoscopic left hemispherotomy. Postoperatively she became seizure free but developed hospital-acquired mild COVID infection for which she was treated accordingly. Chosen cases of severe DRE, as the one illustrated above, who are deemed to benefit from surgery by a multidisciplinary team of physicians, should be re-categorized into the most severe class of patients and scheduled for surgery as soon as possible. The risk benefit ratio of the seizures being mitigated by surgery on one hand and possibility of acquiring COVID infection during hospital stay has to be balanced and a decision made accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Child , Epilepsy/surgery , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e645-e656, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global use of telemedicine has increased rapidly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to bridge the gap in existing health care services. Intercontinental trends in neurosurgeons' perception and practices of telemedicine have been sparingly reported. METHODS: We conducted an online anonymized and validated survey using a structured questionnaire to gain insight into neurosurgeons' experience with telemedicine across various continents and rated its usefulness on a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: We received 286 responses across 5 continents. There was a trend to support a major paradigm shift favoring teleconsultations during the COVID-19 pandemic in respondents from North America (P = 0.06). Signed prescriptions were e-mailed along with video-based teleconsultations preferentially in Europe and North America. In comparison, audio- or text-based teleconsultations along with unsigned prescriptions were prevalent in Asia and Africa (P = 0.0005). Acceptability and perceived usefulness for telemedicine during the pandemic were similar across the globe, regardless of neurosurgeons' experience (mean satisfaction score 3.72 ± 1.09; P = 0.62). A majority of neurosurgeons from Asia and South America complained of difficulties during teleconsultations owing to lack of appropriate infrastructure, internet connectivity/prescription-related issues, and potential risk of litigation (P = 0.0005). Approximately 46% of neurosurgeons, predominantly from Europe and North America, thought that telemedicine could play a vital role in clinical practice even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides (mean satisfaction score 3.26 ± 1.16; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine in neurosurgery is a viable alternative to physical outpatient services during the COVID-19 pandemic and could potentially play a vital role after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/trends , Ambulatory Care , Humans , Internet , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery/economics , Neurosurgery/methods , Prescriptions , Remote Consultation/economics , Remote Consultation/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends
8.
Neurol India ; 69(1): 2-3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110532
10.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(6): E3, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953512

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted healthcare systems globally. The need of the hour is the development of effective strategies for protecting the lives of healthcare providers (HCPs) and judicious triage for optimal utilization of human and hospital resources. During this pandemic, neurosurgery, like other specialties, must transform, innovate, and adopt new guidelines and safety protocols for reducing the risk of cross-infection of HCPs without compromising patient care. In this article, the authors discuss the current neurosurgical practice guidelines at a high-volume tertiary care referral hospital in India and compare them with international guidelines and global consensus for neurosurgery practice in the COVID-19 era. Additionally, the authors highlight some of the modifications incorporated into their clinical practice, including those for stratification of neurosurgical cases, patient triaging based on COVID-19 testing, optimal manpower management, infrastructure reorganization, evolving modules for resident training, and innovations in operating guidelines. The authors recommend the use of their blueprint for stratification of neurosurgical cases, including their protocol for algorithmic patient triage and management and their template for manpower allocation to COVID-19 duty, as a replicable model for efficient healthcare delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce/standards , Neurosurgical Procedures/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Checklist/standards , Checklist/trends , Health Workforce/trends , Humans , India/epidemiology , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/trends , Tertiary Care Centers/trends
11.
Neurol India ; 68(4): 796-799, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION: Donning and doffing of personal protective equipments (PPE) has become relevant especially during COVID-19 pandemic and neurosurgeons operating upon COVID-19 positive or suspect patients should be aware of proper technique of donning and doffing of PPE.[1] Surgeries involving direct exposure of anterior nasal spaces/paranasal sinuses carry significantly more risk of infection and it may be prudent to use PPE while operating all such cases.[2]. OBJECTIVE: In this video, we present our extensive protocol of donning and doffing of PPE which we have devised for our operating room. TECHNIQUE: Donning consists of wearing of the PPE in a proper sequence so as to afford maximal protection from viral infection while conducting the surgical procedure. Various components of PPE and procedure of donning is shown followed by doffing, the sequential and safe removal of the PPE. RESULTS: A meticulous method of donning and doffing PPE for neurosurgeons handling COVID-19 positive / suspect cases has been shown . CONCLUSION: Proper sequence of donning and doffing of PPE gear is of crucial importance during the COVID pandemic to prevent infection to the health care workers while handling COVID-19 positive/suspect cases and this video demonstrates the protocol we use at our institute.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control , Operating Rooms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Neurol India ; 68(4): 774-791, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732745

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV 2) has inexplicably and irreversibly changed the way of neurosurgery practice. There has been a substantial reduction in neurosurgical operations during the period of lockdown. The lockdown might be the most effective measure to curtail viral transmission. Once we return to the normalization of the lifestyle, there will be a backlog of unoperated pending cases along with the possibility of further spread of the coronavirus. METHODS: We reviewed the available literature and protocols for neurosurgical practice in different geographic locations. We drafted a consensus statement based on the literature and protocols suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and various professional societies to prevent the spread of SARS-COV2 while streamlining the neurosurgical practice. RESULTS: The consensus statement suggests the patient triage, workflow, resource distribution, and operational efficacy for care providers at different stages of management. The priority is set at personal protection while ensuring patients' safety, timely management, and capacity building. We performed a detailed subsection analysis for the management of trauma and set up for COVID-free hospitals for simultaneous management of routine neurosurgical indications. In this time of medicolegal upheaval, special consent from the patients should be taken in view of the chances of delay in management and the added risk of corona infection. The consensus statements are applicable to neurosurgical setups of all capacities. CONCLUSION: Along with the glaring problem of infection, there is another threat of neurosurgery emergency building up. This wave may overwhelm the already stretched systems to the hilt. We need to flatten this curve while avoiding contagion. These measures may guide neurosurgery practitioners to effectively manage patients ensuring the safety of caregivers and care seekers both.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Neurosurgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Humans , Neurosurgery/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
13.
World Neurosurg ; 142: e396-e406, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the practice of neurosurgery. Significant resources have been dedicated to the disease. The pandemic in the Indian subcontinent, compared with the rest of the world, is relatively delayed. The neurosurgical practice cannot remain unaffected by hugely disruptive measures such as a lockdown. The inevitable increase in COVID infections with the gradual relaxation of lockdown continues to pose a risk for health care providers. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate whether the pandemic has had a discernible effect on health care providers, especially in terms of practice modifications in private establishments and publicly funded hospitals, the emotional impact on the surgeon, and the influence of social media on the psyche of the surgeon. METHODS: An online questionnaire-based survey was prepared, with questions related to the COVID-specific themes of precautions taken in outpatient services and operating theaters, the influence of social media, the economic loss incurred, and the perceptible impact of telemedicine and webinars. The links to the survey were mailed to neurosurgeons in private and public practice countrywide. The responses were anonymized to ensure free and unbiased answers to the survey questions. RESULTS: A total of 176 responses were received from across the Indian subcontinent. The median age of respondents was 39 years (range, 32-70 years) and the postresidency experience was 7 years (range, 0-34 years). Respondents were an equitable mix of public and private practitioners. Of respondents, 46% were practicing restricted outpatient services, more in public institutions (P = 0.22) which also had a higher incidence of tele-outpatient services (26% vs. 17%). Wearing surgical masks, N95 masks, and gloves were the most commonly practiced precautionary measures in outpatient services (>60%). Although private practitioners were continuing elective cases (40%), public institutes were more cautious, with only emergency patients being operated on (29%). The greatest fear among all practitioners was passing the infection to their family (75%). Social media were helpful for brainstorming queries and updating practice modifications, but some surgeons admitted to receiving threats on social media platforms (37.5%). Depression and economic losses were palpable for approximately 30% neurosurgeons. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the perception of neurosurgeons toward the pandemic and the difference in public-private practice. Suspension of elective procedures, severe curtailment of regular outpatient appointments, drastic modifications of the normal outpatient department/operating room practices, and apprehensions related to inadequacy of safety provided by personal protective equipment use and financial losses of private establishments were some of the visible themes in our survey results. Although telemedicine has not been as widely adopted as expected, online education has been favorably received.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Coronavirus Infections , Elective Surgical Procedures , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Professional Practice , Telemedicine , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Depression , Economics , Hospitals, Private , Hospitals, Public , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Neurosurgery , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
15.
Neurol India ; 68(2): 246-254, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-270267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection outbreak has aroused increasing attention and affected thousands of people nationwide. The long incubation period, high infectious rate, varied manifestation, and absence of effective treatment make it difficult to manage the disease transmission. OBJECTIVE: The intended goals are to encourage efficient management of neurological and neurosurgical patients, resource utilization, and protecting the healthcare provider during the COVID-19 epidemic. Herein, we present a consensus statement from various centers in India. METHODOLOGY: In addition to the literature review, recommendations were included from neurologists and neurosurgeons from various centers in India. RESULTS: Every patient presenting for treatment should be treated as a potential asymptomatic infected case. Patients should be categorized based upon the priority as acute (require immediate treatment/surgery within 24 h), sub-acute (requiring treatment within a maximum of 7-10 days), or chronic (requiring treatment within a month). Non-essential elective surgeries and outpatient clinics should be avoided after informing the patient(s). There is a high risk of aerosol dispersion during intubation and certain neurosurgical procedures particularly those involving drills and endoscopes. These procedures should be performed wearing full personal protective equipment. The workflow of the operating rooms should also be modified significantly. Minor modifications in personal and professional lifestyles and routine training to use the PPE will ensure efficient management of resources. CONCLUSION: These recommendations could be used to mitigate the risks and reduce exposure to other patients, public, and healthcare staff.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Neurology/standards , Neurosurgery/standards , Pandemics , Patient Care/standards , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
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