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1.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24585, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1870096

ABSTRACT

Objective The effectiveness and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) treated with immunomodulators remain uncertain. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether the humoral immune response to the BNT162b2 vaccine differs between patients without and with ARDs treated with immunomodulators. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 3208 electronic medical records from the database of the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) outpatient rheumatology clinics to capture patients with ARDs and control patients without autoimmune inflammatory diseases. All patients who were SARS-CoV-2 infection-naïve, had received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination, and had been serologically tested using Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassays (Roche Holdings AG, Basel, Switzerland), were included in the analysis. Patients with ARD were classified into six subgroups according to the received ARD immunomodulators: methotrexate monotherapy (MTXM), a combination of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (Cs-DMARDs), tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNF-i), rituximab, interleukin-6 inhibitor (IL6-i), and Janus kinase inhibitor (JAK-i). Samples with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 S titer of <0.8 and <132 binding antibody unit (BAU)/mL were defined as negative and poor seroconversion, respectively. The overall mean of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S titer and its level at <0.8 and <132 were compared between the six subgroups of patients with ARD and the controls by performing an unpaired t-test and Chi-squared or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Results The mean (SD) age of 110 patients with ARDs and 20 controls was 47.1 (12) and 59.3 (8.9) years (P < 0.001), respectively, and women predominated both groups (60% vs. 75%, P = 0.20). The most frequently prescribed Cs-DMARDs was methotrexate in 50 (45.5%) patients, followed by TNF-i in 46 (41.8%), rituximab in 20 (18.2%), JAK-i in 12 (10.9%), and IL6-i in 7 (6.4%) patients. The mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody titer of only the rituximab subgroup significantly differed from the controls (P = 0.012). Conclusion The most prevalent ARD immunomodulators (Cs-DMARDs, TNF-i, JAK-i, and IL6-i) were associated with comparable seroconversion rates to the BNT162b2 vaccine. In comparison, rituximab was significantly associated with decreased immunogenicity.

2.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1813033

ABSTRACT

Background Published evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is conflicting. Most studies suggest an increase in the severity of OCD in people with pre-existing OCD, whereas some do not. Aim Given the conflicting evidence globally and lack of data from the Arab world, we aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adults with pre-existing OCD. Methods A telephonic questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among adults with pre-existing OCD and specifically with fear of contamination and washing compulsions being major symptom dimensions of OCD. The severity of OCD during the pandemic was compared with their pre-pandemic scores. The severity of OCD was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Results Those with the duration of diagnosis of OCD of<10 years showed a statistically significant increase in the mean YBOCS score of 5.54 from pre-pandemic to during pandemic, which was significant at p = 0.006. This significance was maintained across the Compulsive and Obsessive subsets of the scale. Conclusion Adults with pre-existing OCD with fear of contamination reported a statistically significant increase in severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms only if the duration of their OCD diagnosis was relatively shorter (<10 years). In the context of the conflicting evidence regarding the worsening of OCD symptoms due to the unique infection control measures of this pandemic, this study highlights the importance of the impact of the duration of the disorder and the subtype of the disorder. Such classification might help public health resources to be directed better at those most at risk and also help us understand the very nature of this disorder better.

3.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e525, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705401

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) vary significantly. OBJECTIVES: To describe the data of patients with pulmonary comorbidities who were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 in Qatar in terms of demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, imaging findings, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the outcomes with regard to mortality and requirement of invasive ventilation, demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, secondary infections, and imaging findings for critical care patients with COVID-19 in Qatar who had pulmonary comorbidities between March and June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 923 patients were included, 29 (3.14%) were found to have pulmonary disease. All these 29 patients' respiratory disease was noted to be asthma. Among these, three patients (10.3%) died in the ICU within 28 days of ICU admission. They were all above 50 years old. Nineteen (66%) patients required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-one (72.4%) patients were males. The most common comorbidities included diabetes mellitus (55.1%) and hypertension (62%). Eighteen (62%) patients developed secondary infections in the ICU. Five (17.24%) patients developed renal impairment. Twenty (69%) patients received tocilizumab as part of their COVID-19 management, and out of these 16 (80%) patients developed a coinfection. CONCLUSION: Patients with pulmonary disorders had higher mortality rates than other patients admitted to ICU during the same time frame with similar comorbidities; these patients require extra consideration and care to avoid disease progression and death.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313638

ABSTRACT

Background: Intensive care unit (ICU) staff have faced unprecedented challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which could significantly affect their mental health and well-being. The present study aimed to investigate perceived stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms reported by ICU staff working directly with COVID-19 patients. Methods: The Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress, the PTSD Diagnostic Scale for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 th edition) was used to determine PTSD symptoms, and a sociodemographic questionnaire was used to record different sociodemographic variables. Results: Altogether, 124 participants (57.2% of whom were men) were included in the analysis. The majority of participants perceived working in the ICU with COVID-19 patients as moderately to severely stressful. Moreover, 71.4% of doctors and 74.4% of nurses experienced moderate to severe perceived stress. The staff with previous ICU experience were less likely to have a probable diagnosis of PTSD than those without previous ICU experience. Conclusions: Assessing perceived stress levels and PTSD among ICU staff may enhance our understanding of COVID-19-induced mental health challenges. Specific strategies to enhance ICU staff’s mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic should be employed and monitored regularly. Interventions aimed at alleviating sources of anxiety in a high-stress environment may reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD.

6.
Middle East Journal of Family Medicine ; 20(1):176-184, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1605783

ABSTRACT

Background: Qatar is considered as one of highly prevalent countries of type 2 diabetes, with a prevalence of 17 %. Since the start of the global pandemic of COVID-19 the type of service and the access to health centers had changed during the pandemic, so we wanted to know the effect of this major change in the level of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients followed in the PHCC (Primary Health Care Corporation) and compare it with previous studies. Also we wanted to know the relation between level of glycemic control and number of phone consultations done for each patient and fi- nally the prevalence of Covid 19 in type 2 diabetic patients followed in PHCC. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective data analysis extracted from medical records of patients with Diabetes Melittus type 2 followed at PHCC, in year 2020 Results: The data was extracted for 17,413 patients with type 2 diabetes. The mean HbA1c in our sample was 7.45±1.67% before the pandemic, and 7.34±1.61% during it (Paired t test P<0.001). The mean weight was 82.6±17.40 Kg before the pandemic, and 82.3±17.43 Kg during it (Paired t test P<0.001). Using unpaired t test and one way ANOVA, when analyzing the percentage changes in mean HbA1c among different groups of the sample, no clinical significant (P>0.05) changes in HbA1c was noticed among any group (although most of these groups showed statistical significance in which P<0.01 and this could be due to larger sample size studied). Pearson correlation analysis indicates percentage change in mean HbA1c didn't have any significant correlation with demographic and various comorbidities. A total of 8.06% (95% CI 7.66, 8.47) of the patients suffered a COVID-19 infection during the study period. Our sample patients received 45,701 consultations during the study period of which 60.60% were virtual. Conclusion: The results showed no significant difference in level of glycemic control during the year 2020 as the mean of HbA1c had not changed;the mean was 7.45% and became 7.34%, with a prevalence of 8.06% for positive cases of Covid in the sample. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Middle East Journal of Family Medicine is the property of Medi+WORLD International Pty. Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 20(1): 38, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) staff have faced unprecedented challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which could significantly affect their mental health and well-being. The present study aimed to investigate perceived stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms reported by ICU staff working directly with COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress, the PTSD Diagnostic Scale for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition) was used to determine PTSD symptoms, and a sociodemographic questionnaire was used to record different sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Altogether, 124 participants (57.2% of whom were men) were included in the analysis. The majority of participants perceived working in the ICU with COVID-19 patients as moderately to severely stressful. Moreover, 71.4% of doctors and 74.4% of nurses experienced moderate-to-severe perceived stress. The staff with previous ICU experience were less likely to have a probable diagnosis of PTSD than those without previous ICU experience. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing perceived stress levels and PTSD among ICU staff may enhance our understanding of COVID-19-induced mental health challenges. Specific strategies to enhance ICU staff's mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic should be employed and monitored regularly. Interventions aimed at alleviating sources of anxiety in a high-stress environment may reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294056

ABSTRACT

We conducted a content analysis of free-text comments of a web-based survey during the first wave of Coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] pandemic. The objective was to understand participants’ emotional experiences and identify their valued aspects of support to inform potential mitigation strategies. This study was part of a larger project;a cross-sectional, web-based survey of healthcare workers managing suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in Qatar. A total of 779 staff members were invited to participate in this study and 286 (36.7 %) responded. Extracts and phrases were used to identify potential themes, with relevant ‘quotes’ gathered within identified themes in keeping with best practice qualitative methodology. The results indicate that strategies around infection control practice, personal protective equipment, SARS-CoV-2 testing, workload, financial compensation, religion, psychological support and engaged leadership are deemed important by frontline healthcare workers to maintain their mental wellbeing.

9.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410096

ABSTRACT

There have been numerous concerns regarding the physical and mental health of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stress, sleep deprivation, anxiety, and depression potentiated nurses' vulnerability to poor eating habits. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the differences between nurses' characteristics with COVID-19 facility designation, and sleep quality, depression, anxiety, stress, eating habits, social bonds, and quality of life. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, comparative study. METHODS: An online survey was sent using the corporation's email to nurses working in three hospitals in Qatar from September to December 2020. One of them is a designated COVID-19 facility. The sleep quality, depression, eating habits, social bonds, and quality of life were measured using The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21), Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ), Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS-3), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 200 nurses participated in the study (RR: 13.3%). No statistically significant association was found between designated facility (COVID-19 vs. not COVID-19) or nurses' characteristics and ISI categories (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.54, 2.44). Nurses working in COVID-19 facilities had increased odds of having higher EEQ categories by 2.62 times (95% CI 1.18, 5.83). Similarly, no statistically significant associations were found between any of the nurses' characteristics and OSSS-3 categories. On the other hand, no statistically significant associations were found between any of the nurses' characteristics and QOL domains except for the gender and social relationships' domain. CONCLUSION: Overall, the quality of life of nurses in Qatar is on a positive level whether they are assigned to a COVID-19 facility or not. Although no significant difference was found with regard to the sleep quality, stress, anxiety, depression, and eating habits between nurses in a COVID-19 facility and in a non-COVID-19 facility, special interventions to diminish stressors need to be implemented and maintained.

10.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211039714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358991

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, primary and secondary healthcare workers (HCWs) have faced unprecedented stress, jeopardizing their mental well-being. AIMS: To compare risk perception and psychological distress between primary and secondary HCWs. METHOD: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted with HCWs in Qatar from April 5 to July 5, 2020. Psychological distress and risk perception were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a perceived COVID-19 risk questionnaire, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 4417 participating HCWs, 3421 (90.3%) felt that their job increased their risk of COVID-19 exposure, 3759 (90.9%) accepted this as part of their job, and 3440 worried that this also increased the risk of exposure to their families. Moreover, 2911 (84.8%) believed that their employer would look after their needs if they contracted COVID-19. Moderate to severe psychological distress was present in 1346 (30.5%) HCWs. Primary HCWs were less likely to experience moderate to severe psychological distress than secondary HCWs (adjusted OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.29-0.77, P = .003). Secondary HCWs who worked in COVID-19 designated areas had greater psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs' exposure to outbreaks has various psychological effects, which may have long-term consequences and affect their decision-making capacity. Strategies to enhance the mental well-being of HCWs exposed to COVID-19 should be introduced immediately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Perception , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Qatar Med J ; 2020(3): 39, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers managing Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) patients are at increased risk of poor mental wellbeing. The available literature on the psychological impact in the Arabian Gulf region is limited, and a more in-depth analysis of factors affecting frontline healthcare workers' mental wellbeing is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate and explore healthcare workers' wellbeing working in quarantine centers in Qatar. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, web-based survey conducted on healthcare workers managing patients in designated quarantine centers. Healthcare workers associated with 51 COVID-19 quarantine centers were eligible to participate in this survey from April 19 to May 3, 2020. The primary outcome of interest was mental wellbeing as measured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). RESULTS: A total of 127 of 169 contacted staff members completed the survey, with a participation rate of 75%. Approximately 17.4% of participants had well-being scores of less than 45, indicating suboptimal wellbeing and a high risk of psychological distress and depression. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that nurses are associated with increased risk (more than the fivefold higher risk of having WEMWBS score < 45) of adverse mental wellbeing (adjusted OR 5.65; 95% CI 0.57, 56.4; p = 0.140). CONCLUSION: The psychological impact of working in quarantine centers on healthcare workers was less than what has been reported globally. Nurses are the most vulnerable group. It is essential that health services monitor the psychological impact on its workforce and puts appropriate mitigation strategies in place.

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