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1.
International Journal of Stroke ; 17(2 Supplement):8-9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2079342

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted modern healthcare and delayed time to acute stroke treatment at some centres internationally. The effect of the pandemic on time metrics in patients with a large vessel occlusion (LVO) at Australian stroke centres is unknown. Aim(s): To evaluate time metrics for patients with an LVO transferred from a primary stroke centre (PSC) to a comprehensive stroke centre (CSC), during and before the coronavirus pandemic. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with an LVO who were transferred from a single PSC to any of three CSCs were enrolled. The pandemic period was defined as the 24 months following the March 2020 state of emergency declaration in Melbourne, and prepandemic period the preceding 24 months. "Door-in" was the time triaged as a stroke, and "Door-out" was the time ambulance staff departed. Result(s): 159 patients were included, 82 in the pandemic group and 77 in the pre-pandemic group. There were no significant differences between groups in patient age, sex, modified Rankin scale score, or National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score. Door-in to Door-out (DIDO) times were reduced during the pandemic (median 52 vs 66 minutes, IQR 41-66 vs 52-95 minutes, p<0.001). There was no change in time from PSC Door-in to the first CSC DSA images (median 125 vs 125 minutes, p=0.79). Within the DIDO workflow, the only significantly different metric was time from CSC advising of patient acceptance to PSC door-out, which improved (median 8 vs 14 minutes, p=0.016). DIDO times out of hours when the stroke registrar was called in also improved (median 51 vs 87 minutes, p=0.003). Conclusion(s): The median DIDO times at our PSC improved during the pandemic. Further studies are required to determine if this is due to a continued quality improvement program at our centre, or due to other factors.

3.
Transportation Research Record ; : 03611981221087233, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1820039

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on activity time use and timing behavior in Switzerland. The evaluation is based on mobility tracking data collected in Switzerland during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has affected how people spend their time and schedule their activities throughout the day, subsequently creating new activity patterns. Because of the rare occurrences of pandemics in the recent past, little is known about their implications on the behavioral choices of affected people. This paper analyzes these implications by applying a multiple discrete-continuous choice model on mobility tracking data from Switzerland. The applied model is consistent with the results of the descriptive analysis and shows that the different stages of the pandemic drove changes in the activity patterns. During the lockdown, an increase in home activities comes along with decreases in the other activity types. With progressive relaxation of the measures in the following phases, the trends slowly return to the initial state before the pandemic. In addition, it can be seen that the impact of main drivers such as age, gender, household size, income and weather on time use and activity scheduling varies between phases, activity types, and time of day.

4.
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics ; 111:S27-S28, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1695818
5.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(6):683-708, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1134565

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (CoV), earlier named 2019-nCoV, and later as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now created havoc and panic across the globe by its severe ongoing pandemic. This virus has to date as of 23rd November 2020, killed nearly 1.4 million persons out of more than 59 million confirmed positive cases, while spreading rapidly in more than 215 countries and territories. Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 has been characterized in genus Betacoronavirus, which contains non-segmented positive-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA genome of ~30 kb. The first two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1a and ORF1b, of SARS-CoV-2, encode 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-nsp16), whereas other ORFs encodes four main structural proteins (sp) [spike (s) by ORF2, envelope (E) by ORF4, membrane (M) by ORF5, nucleoprotein (N) by ORF9], and accessory proteins essential for the virus fitness, pathogenesis and host immunity evasion. Sequence alignments of SARS-CoV-2 with genomes of various coronaviruses showed 58% identity in the non-structural protein (nsp)-coding region, 43% with the structural protein (sp)-coding region and 54% with the whole genome. The full-length genome sequence of the 2019-nCoV sample showed only up to 79.60% similarity with SARS CoV, but up to 96% similarity with bat coronavirus (bat coronavirus RaTG13). This gives strong evidence that 2019-nCoV has originated from the bat. The genomic and evolutionary evidence of another coronavirus species from pangolins also show higher similarity to SARS-CoV at the whole-genome level. Apart from RaTG13, Pangolin-CoV is the most closely related CoV to SARS-CoV-2. During infection, the viral S protein interacts with the receptor protein of the human cell membrane, known as angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). Presently, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and drugs are not available, for which researchers are trying hard to develop to tackle rising tide of COVID-19-pandemic. Early diagnosis, contact tracing, strict prevention and control measures, biosecurity, personal biosafety, disinfection and sanitization practices, social distancing are aiding in prevention with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Boosting immunity by intaking the balanced and nutritious food, nutraceuticals, herbs, and following physical exercises along with avoiding stress conditions enhance the fighting power of the body against SARS-CoV-2 infection and limiting the severity of COVID-19. The present article describes salient knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 structure, genomic organization, pathogenesis, pathobiology, and advances and progress being made to treat COVID-19 patients. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000711

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease – 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative / supportive therapeutic options. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

7.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 32(3):608-609, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-908461
8.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1623-1638, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-881571

ABSTRACT

Newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now spread across the globe in past few months while affecting 26 million people and leading to more than 0.85 million deaths as on 2nd September, 2020. Severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection increases in COVID-19 patients due to pre-existing health co-morbidities. This mini-review has focused on the three significant co-morbidities viz., heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, which are posing high health concerns and increased mortality during this ongoing pandemic. The observed co-morbidities have been found to be associated with the increasing risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 critical illness as well as to be associated positively with the worsening of the health condition of COVID-19 suffering individuals resulting in the high risk for mortality. SARS-CoV-2 enters host cell via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. Regulation of crucial cardiovascular functions and metabolisms like blood pressure and sugar levels are being carried out by ACE2. This might be one of the reasons that contribute to the higher mortality in COVID-19 patients having co-morbidities. Clinical investigations have identified higher levels of creatinine, cardiac troponin I, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, creatine kinase, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in patients who have succumbed to death from COVID-19 as compared to recovered individuals. More investigations are required to identify the modes behind increased mortality in COVID-19 patients having co-morbidities of heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. This will enable us to design and develop suitable therapeutic strategies for reducing the mortality. More attention and critical care need to be paid to such high risk patients suffering from co-morbidities during COVID-19 pandemic.

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