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Front Public Health ; 9: 798905, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581098


The exponential growth of social media users has changed the dynamics of retrieving the potential information from user-generated content and transformed the paradigm of information-retrieval mechanism with the novel developments on the concept of "web of data". In this regard, our proposed Ontology-Based Sentiment Analysis provides two novel approaches: First, the emotion extraction on tweets related to COVID-19 is carried out by a well-formed taxonomy that comprises possible emotional concepts with fine-grained properties and polarized values. Second, the potential entities present in the tweet can be analyzed for semantic associativity. The extraction of emotions can be performed in two cases: (i) words directly associated with the emotional concepts present in the taxonomy and (ii) words indirectly present in the emotional concepts. Though the latter case is very challenging in processing the tweets to find the hidden patterns and extract the meaningful facts associated with it, our proposed work is able to extract and detect almost 81% of true positives and considerably able to detect the false negatives. Finally, the proposed approach's superior performance is witnessed from its comparison with other peer-level approaches.

COVID-19 , Social Media , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Front Public Health ; 9: 729795, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448820


This paper aims to evaluate the performance of multiple non-linear regression techniques, such as support-vector regression (SVR), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), Random Forest Regressor, Gradient Boosting, and XGBOOST for COVID-19 reproduction rate prediction and to study the impact of feature selection algorithms and hyperparameter tuning on prediction. Sixteen features (for example, Total_cases_per_million and Total_deaths_per_million) related to significant factors, such as testing, death, positivity rate, active cases, stringency index, and population density are considered for the COVID-19 reproduction rate prediction. These 16 features are ranked using Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, and XGBOOST feature selection algorithms. Seven features are selected from the 16 features according to the ranks assigned by most of the above mentioned feature-selection algorithms. Predictions by historical statistical models are based solely on the predicted feature and the assumption that future instances resemble past occurrences. However, techniques, such as Random Forest, XGBOOST, Gradient Boosting, KNN, and SVR considered the influence of other significant features for predicting the result. The performance of reproduction rate prediction is measured by mean absolute error (MAE), mean squared error (MSE), root mean squared error (RMSE), R-Squared, relative absolute error (RAE), and root relative squared error (RRSE) metrics. The performances of algorithms with and without feature selection are similar, but a remarkable difference is seen with hyperparameter tuning. The results suggest that the reproduction rate is highly dependent on many features, and the prediction should not be based solely upon past values. In the case without hyperparameter tuning, the minimum value of RAE is 0.117315935 with feature selection and 0.0968989 without feature selection, respectively. The KNN attains a low MAE value of 0.0008 and performs well without feature selection and with hyperparameter tuning. The results show that predictions performed using all features and hyperparameter tuning is more accurate than predictions performed using selected features.

COVID-19 , Birth Rate , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125439, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101360


Viruses are omnipresent and persistent in wastewater, which poses a risk to human health. In this review, we summarise the different qualitative and quantitative methods for virus analysis in wastewater and systematically discuss the spatial distribution and temporal patterns of various viruses (i.e., enteric viruses, Caliciviridae (Noroviruses (NoVs)), Picornaviridae (Enteroviruses (EVs)), Hepatitis A virus (HAV)), and Adenoviridae (Adenoviruses (AdVs))) in wastewater systems. Then we critically review recent SARS-CoV-2 studies to understand the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic through wastewater surveillance. SARS-CoV-2 genetic material has been detected in wastewater from France, the Netherlands, Australia, Italy, Japan, Spain, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, and the USA. We then discuss the utility of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to estimate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of these viruses and generate human health risk assessment. Finally, we not only promote the prevention of viral infectious disease transmission through wastewater but also highlight the potential use of WBE as an early warning system for public health assessment.

COVID-19 , Viruses , Australia , China , France , Humans , India , Italy , Japan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Waste Water