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1.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 4677-4685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416994

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Most studies that examined the relationship between internet use and sleep were conducted mainly in children and adolescents, and we know little about the use of internet among adults. The purpose of this study is to understand the internet use patterns of Chinese adults and to measure their associations with sleep duration from variety, frequency and type. Methods: A total of 19,730 samples were selected from 2018 data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal study. Internet usage was obtained by specific questions, and the range of sleep period was grouped according to recommendations from the National Sleep Foundation. Kruskal-Wallis H-test and the chi-squared test were used for basic descriptive analysis, and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships between internet use and sleep duration. Stata version 15.0 was used for data cleaning, and SPSS version 20.0 was used for statistics analysis. Results: After screening, a total of 6346 persons were included in the analysis, of which 3148 (49.61%) were males and 3198 (50.39%) were females. Age ranged from 21 to 95 years, most persons were over 45 years old, with the median age of 56 years. Only 1180 (18.59%) participants used the internet, and almost all of them used mobile phones (1137, 96.36%), the other three types were desktop computer (232, 19.66%), laptop computer (69, 5.85%) and tablet (73, 6.19%). There were 912 (77.28%) and 268 (22.71%) participants who used only one and two or more types, respectively. In the unadjusted model, both short sleep and long sleep were associated with internet use compared with normal sleep duration (0.806 [0.708-0.918] p = 0.001; 0.345 [0.251-0.475] p < 0.000). After adjusting for all covariates, the association between long sleep and internet use still persisted (0.612 [0.433-0.865] p = 0.005), but no significant difference was found in short sleep (0.929 [0.803-1.075] p = 0.325). Conclusion: Internet use was found to be closely associated with sleep and the duration of sleep negatively affected, which may provide new ideas for sleep hygiene recommendations and healthy media use. This conclusion needs more evidence to support.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16193, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351975

ABSTRACT

We have optimised a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from extracted RNA for clinical application. We improved the stability and reliability of the RT-LAMP assay by the addition of a temperature-dependent switch oligonucleotide to reduce self- or off-target amplification. We then developed freeze-dried master mix for single step RT-LAMP reaction, simplifying the operation for end users and improving long-term storage and transportation. The assay can detect as low as 13 copies of SARS-CoV2 RNA per reaction (25-µL). Cross reactivity with other human coronaviruses was not observed. We have applied the new RT-LAMP assay for testing clinical extracted RNA samples extracted from swabs of 72 patients in the UK and 126 samples from Greece and demonstrated the overall sensitivity of 90.2% (95% CI 83.8-94.7%) and specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 83.2-97.5%). Among 115 positive samples which Ct values were less than 34, the RT-LAMP assay was able to detect 110 of them with 95.6% sensitivity. The specificity was 100% when RNA elution used RNase-free water. The outcome of RT-LAMP can be reported by both colorimetric detection and quantifiable fluorescent reading. Objective measures with a digitized reading data flow would allow for the sharing of results for local or national surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 021103, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106365

ABSTRACT

Background: To prevent the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), strict control of person-to-person transmission is essential. Family transmission is the most common route of transmission; however, family transmission patterns and outcomes are not well understood. Methods: We enrolled confirmed cases discharged from Wuhan Zhuankou Fangcang Shelter Hospital from February 17, 2020 to March 8, 2020 along with the family members they had contact with, to evaluate baseline characteristics, family transmission patterns and outcomes. The follow-up period lasted until May 8, 2020. Results: This study evaluated 369 participants, which included 100 patients admitted to the shelter hospital and the family members they had contact with. Family transmission occurred in 62% of household, with 190 cases confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were eight patterns of family transmission, and spousal transmission (44/83, 53.0%) was the most common pattern, especially in the middle-age generation group (35/83, 42.2%). The homes of the families in which all members were infected had a smaller per capita area than those of other families (29.1 ± 11.89 cm2 vs 41.0 ± 19.70 cm2, respectively, P = 0.037), and the per capita area was negatively associated with the number of infected family members (R = -0.097, P = 0.048). Of the 190 confirmed cases, the 113 mild or moderate cases were monitored in fangcang (including Wuhan Zhuankou Fangcang and other fangcang), and the 59 severe cases were treated at designated hospitals. By the end of follow-up, 185 patients recovered and returned home after completing at least 14 days of isolation at the community quarantine center, four died in hospitals, and one died at home before hospitalization. Interestingly, four patients had positive nucleic acid test results after previous negative results, though none of these patients were re-hospitalized, and none of their close contacts reported an infection. Conclusions: Our data found eight family transmission patterns, of which spousal transmission was the most common. Some patients were also found to have positive test results during follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(2): 127-136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic continues, medical workers may have allostatic load. OBJECTIVE: During the reopening of society, medical and nonmedical workers were compared in terms of allostatic load. METHODS: An online study was performed; 3,590 Chinese subjects were analyzed. Socio-demographic variables, allostatic load, stress, abnormal illness behavior, global well-being, mental status, and social support were assessed. RESULTS: There was no difference in allostatic load in medical workers compared to nonmedical workers (15.8 vs. 17.8%; p = 0.22). Multivariate conditional logistic regression revealed that anxiety (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.18-1.31; p < 0.01), depression (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.17-1.29; p < 0.01), somatization (OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.14-1.25; p < 0.01), hostility (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.18-1.30; p < 0.01), and abnormal illness behavior (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.34-1.66; p < 0.01) were positively associated with allostatic load, while objective support (OR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.89; p < 0.01), subjective support (OR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.80-0.88; p < 0.01), utilization of support (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88; p < 0.01), social support (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.87-0.93; p < 0.01), and global well-being (OR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.22-0.41; p < 0.01) were negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-COVID-19 epidemic time, medical and nonmedical workers had similar allostatic load. Psychological distress and abnormal illness behavior were risk factors for it, while social support could relieve it.


Subject(s)
Allostasis/physiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Depression/physiopathology , Health Personnel , Illness Behavior/physiology , Personal Satisfaction , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations
5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment. METHODS: This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance. RESULTS: Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6). CONCLUSION: Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Acta Radiol ; 62(3): 360-367, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, PR China, was caused by a novel beta coronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To summarize chest computed tomography (CT) manifestations of the early stage of COVID-19 infection and provide a piece of reliable imaging evidence for initial screening and diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 10 January 2020 to 10 February 2020, we continuously observed chest CT imaging of 14 patients with clinically suspected new coronavirus infection in the two weeks after onset of symptoms. Ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, reticular pattern, and ground-glass mimic nodules in each patient's chest CT image were recorded. RESULTS: We enrolled 14 patients, of which nine patients had the infection confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Five patients were highly suspected of infection. All cases had epidemiological evidence. GGO was a dominant imaging manifestation in the initial days of infection. GGO performance accounts for 40% in 1- 2 days, 90% in 3- 6 days, and 85% in 7- 10 days. With disease progression, consolidation appeared on follow-up CT. Consolidation performance accounts for 0% in 1- 2 days, 40% in 3- 6 days, and 71% in 7- 10 days. The lesions are mostly near the pleura. The number of lesions and the extent of the lesions increased as the disease progressed. CONCLUSION: Patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia have characteristic CT features in the initial stage of infection, which can be used as an essential supplement for nucleic acid examination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
7.
Biodes Manuf ; : 1-4, 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232677

ABSTRACT

We present an example of applying 'need-driven' product design principle to the development of a rapid test kit to detect SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19). The tests are intended for use in the field and, longer term, for home use. They detect whether a subject is currently infected with the virus and is infectious. The urgent need for large numbers of tests in field setting imposes constraints such as short test time and lack of access to specialist equipment, laboratories and skilled technicians to perform the test and interpret results. To meet these needs, an antigen test based on RT-LAMP with colorimetric readout was chosen. Direct use of swab sample with no RNA extraction was explored. After extensive experimental study (reported elsewhere), a rapid test kit has been fabricated to satisfy all design criteria.

8.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(4): 950-961, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116666

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in the world has caused a large infected population suffering from COVID-19. To curb the spreading of the virus, WHO urgently demanded an extension of screening and testing; thus, a rapid and simple diagnostic method is needed. We applied a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to achieve the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 30 min. We designed four sets of LAMP primers (6 primers in each set), targeting the viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in the regions of orf1ab, S gene and N gene. A colorimetric change was used to report the results, which enables the outcome of viral RNA amplification to be read by the naked eye without the need of expensive or dedicated instrument. The sensitivity can be 80 copies of viral RNA per ml in a sample. We validated the RT-LAMP method in a hospital in China, employing 16 clinic samples with 8 positives and 8 negatives. The testing results are consistent with the conventional RT-qPCR. In addition, we also show that one-step process without RNA extraction is feasible to achieve RNA amplification directly from a sample. This rapid, simple and sensitive RT-LAMP method paves a way for a large screening at public domain and hospitals, particularly regional hospitals and medical centres in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA Primers/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
9.
Psychother Psychosom ; 89(4): 242-250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We explored whether medical health workers had more psychosocial problems than nonmedical health workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: An online survey was run from February 19 to March 6, 2020; a total of 2,182 Chinese subjects participated. Mental health variables were assessed via the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Symptom Check List-revised (SCL-90-R), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), which included a 2-item anxiety scale and a 2-item depression scale (PHQ-2). RESULTS: Compared with nonmedical health workers (n = 1,255), medical health workers (n = 927) had a higher prevalence of insomnia (38.4 vs. 30.5%, p < 0.01), anxiety (13.0 vs. 8.5%, p < 0.01), depression (12.2 vs. 9.5%; p< 0.04), somatization (1.6 vs. 0.4%; p < 0.01), and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (5.3 vs. 2.2%; p < 0.01). They also had higher total scores of ISI, GAD-2, PHQ-2, and SCL-90-R obsessive-compulsive symptoms (p ≤ 0.01). Among medical health workers, having organic disease was an independent factor for insomnia, anxiety, depression, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Living in rural areas, being female, and being at risk of contact with COVID-19 patients were the most common risk factors for insomnia, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and depression (p < 0.01 or 0.05). Among nonmedical health workers, having organic disease was a risk factor for insomnia, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (p < 0.01 or 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, medical health workers had psychosocial problems and risk factors for developing them. They were in need of attention and recovery programs.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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