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1.
Nature communications ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998854

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PED causes enteric disorders with an exceptionally high fatality in neonates, bringing substantial economic losses in the pork industry. The trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein of PEDV is responsible for virus-host recognition, membrane fusion, and is the main target for vaccine development and antigenic analysis. The atomic structures of the recombinant PEDV S proteins of two different strains have been reported, but they reveal distinct N-terminal domain 0 (D0) architectures that may correspond to different functional states. The existence of the D0 is a unique feature of alphacoronavirus. Here we combined cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to demonstrate in situ the asynchronous S protein D0 motions on intact viral particles of a highly virulent PEDV Pintung 52 strain. We further determined the cryo-EM structure of the recombinant S protein derived from a porcine cell line, which revealed additional domain motions likely associated with receptor binding. By integrating mass spectrometry and cryo-EM, we delineated the complex compositions and spatial distribution of the PEDV S protein N-glycans, and demonstrated the functional role of a key N-glycan in modulating the D0 conformation. Hsu and co-workers integrate cryo-electron tomography, cryo-electron microscopy and mass spectrometry to reveal the structural polymorphism of a pig coronavirus spike protein within intact viral particles, and how glycosylation modulates the conformational changes pertinent to host recognition.

2.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746221

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a highly transmissible intestinal pathogen that causes mild to severe clinical symptoms, such as anorexia, vomiting, and watery diarrhea in pigs. By comparing the genetic sequences of the spike glycoprotein between historical and current Taiwanese PDCoV strains, we identified a novel PDCoV variant that displaced the PDCoV responsible for the 2015 epidemic. This PDCoV variant belongs to a young population within the US lineage, and infected pigs carry high concentrations of the virus. It also has several critical point mutations and an amino acid insertion at position 52 that may enhance the affinity between the B-cell epitopes located in the N-terminal domain with its complementarity regions, consequently facilitating binding or penetration between the fusion peptide and cellular membrane. Furthermore, viral protein structure prediction demonstrated that these amino acid changes may change the ability of the virus to bind to the receptor, which may consequently alter virus infectivity. Our results hence suggest the emergence of new PDCoV strains in Taiwan with the potential for greater transmission and pathogenesis.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has been widely administered against SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, data regarding its immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and potential differences in responses among Asian populations remain scarce. METHODS: 270 participants without prior COVID-19 were enrolled to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination with a prime-boost interval of 8-9 weeks. Their specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers (NT50), platelet counts, and D-dimer levels were analyzed before and after vaccination. RESULTS: The seroconversion rates of anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG at day 28 after a boost vaccination (BD28) were 100% and 95.19%, respectively. Anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG levels were highly correlated (r = 0.7891), which were 172.9 ± 170.4 and 179.3 ± 76.88 BAU/mL at BD28, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of NT50 for all participants increased to 132.9 IU/mL (95% CI 120.0-147.1) at BD28 and were highly correlated with anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG levels (r = 0.8248 and 0.7474, respectively). Body weight index was statistically significantly associated with anti-RBD IgG levels (p = 0.035), while female recipients had higher anti-spike IgG levels (p = 0.038). The GMCs of NT50 declined with age (p = 0.0163) and were significantly different across age groups (159.7 IU/mL for 20-29 years, 99.4 IU/mL for ≥50 years, p = 0.0026). Injection-site pain, fever, and fatigue were the major reactogenicity, which were more pronounced after prime vaccination and in younger participants (<50 years). Platelet counts decreased and D-dimer levels increased after vaccination but were not clinically relevant. No serious adverse events or deaths were observed. CONCLUSION: The vaccine is well-tolerated and elicited robust humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after standard prime-boost vaccination in Taiwanese recipients.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients tend to have a reduced immune response to infection and vaccination. The efficacy of current available COVID-19 vaccines in CKD patients has not been widely evaluated. METHODS: In the present study, three hundred and eight chronic dialysis patients received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca, AZ). Blood tests using an antibody against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein had performed at four designed time points before and after the first and second vaccine. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 65.5 ± 12.38 years, and the male/female ratio was 61.4%:38.6% (189/119). Two weeks after the first vaccination, only 37.66% of patients had a positive antibody response (>50 AU/mL). However, 65.58% of the participants showed a delayed antibody response ten weeks after the first vaccine. Four weeks after the second vaccine, 94.16% of participants had positive antibody levels. Age was the most significant factor associated with antibody response. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that immune-naïve patients had significantly lower early active B cells and proliferative B cells than the age- and sex-matched immune responders. CONCLUSION: Despite a delayed response, 94.16% of chronic dialysis patients achieved a positive antibody response after two doses of the AZ vaccine. Age is the most significant factor associated with antibody response.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241262, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902050

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. Rapidly distinguishing COVID-19 from other respiratory infections is a challenge for first-line health care providers. This retrospective study was conducted at the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Patients who visited the outdoor epidemic prevention screening station for respiratory infection from February 19 to April 30, 2020, were evaluated for blood biomarkers to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infections. Monocyte distribution width (MDW) ≥ 20 (odds ratio [OR]: 8.39, p = 0.0110, area under curve [AUC]: 0.703) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) < 3.2 (OR: 4.23, p = 0.0494, AUC: 0.673) could independently distinguish COVID-19 from common upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Combining MDW ≥ 20 and NLR < 3.2 was more efficient in identifying COVID-19 (AUC: 0.840). Moreover, MDW ≥ 20 and NLR > 5 effectively identified influenza infection (AUC: 0.7055). Thus, MDW and NLR can distinguish COVID-19 from influenza and URIs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Monocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , ROC Curve , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 417-430, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826322

ABSTRACT

New variants of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) causing a highly contagious intestinal disease, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PED), have resulted in high mortality in suckling pigs across several countries since 2013. After 2015, the prevalence of the genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDVs decreased in a cyclical pattern with endemic seasonal outbreaks occasionally seen. To better understand the genetic diversity of PEDVs recently circulating in Taiwan, full-length spike (S) genes of 31 PEDV strains from 28 pig farms collected during 2016-2018 were sequenced. While the majority of S gene sequences (from 27/28 farms) were closely related to the previous G2b PEDV strains, increased genetic diversities leading to several nonsynonymous mutations scattering in the neutralizing epitopes of the S gene were detected in PEDVs recently circulating in Taiwan. Furthermore, novel recombinant variants, the PEDV TW/Yunlin550/2018 strains exhibiting recombinant events between a previously isolated Taiwan PEDV G2b strain and a wild-type PEDV G1a strain, were identified and further classified into a new genogroup, G1c. These results provide updated information about the genetic diversity of currently circulating PEDVs in the field and could help to develop more suitable strategies for controlling this disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Farms , Female , Genotype , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Taiwan/epidemiology
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(1)2020 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826321

ABSTRACT

Intramuscular (IM) immunization is generally considered incapable of generating a protective mucosal immune response. In the swine industry, attempts to develop a safe and protective vaccine for controlling porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) via an IM route of administration have been unsuccessful. In the present study, porcine chemokine ligand proteins CCL25, 27, and 28 were constructed and stably expressed in the mammalian expression system. IM co-administration of inactivated PEDV (iPEDV) particles with different CC chemokines and Freund's adjuvants resulted in recruiting CCR9+ and/or CCR10+ inflammatory cells to the injection site, thereby inducing superior systemic PEDV specific IgG, fecal IgA, and viral neutralizing antibodies in pigs. Moreover, pigs immunized with iPEDV in combination with CCL25 and CCL28 elicited substantial protection against a virulent PEDV challenge. We show that the porcine CC chemokines could be novel adjuvants for developing IM vaccines for modulating mucosal immune responses against mucosal transmissible pathogens in pigs.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1438-1446, 2020 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833187

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is an alphacoronavirus that causes a nearly 100% mortality rate without effective treatment. Here we report a 3.3-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the serotype I FIPV spike (S) protein, which is responsible for host recognition and viral entry. Mass spectrometry provided site-specific compositions of densely distributed high-mannose and complex-type N-glycans that account for 1/4 of the total molecular mass; most of the N-glycans could be visualized by cryo-EM. Specifically, the N-glycans that wedge between 2 galectin-like domains within the S1 subunit of FIPV S protein result in a unique propeller-like conformation, underscoring the importance of glycosylation in maintaining protein structures. The cleavage site within the S2 subunit responsible for activation also showed distinct structural features and glycosylation. These structural insights provide a blueprint for a better molecular understanding of the pathogenesis of FIP.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Galectins/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mannose/chemistry , Protein Conformation
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