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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313371

ABSTRACT

Background: Prolonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well-documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with serologic biomarkers remain elusive. Methods: Adult inpatient and outpatient SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to one year after diagnosis;they completed symptom surveys and underwent sampling procedures (blood draw and nasal swab) at each visit. Findings: Our cohort (n=617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. 40% of participants reported at least one symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days, median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for one month or longer was 214 days. Serum anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week of infection was predictive of time to symptom resolution. A prior diagnosis of lung disease was associated with longer time to symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution. More than 90% of participants had SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody>1000 AU/mL nine months after diagnosis. Interpretation: Our findings showed that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration. Trial Registration: National clinical trial database NCT04664309.Funding: NIH CTSA grant, U54 NIH Grant, R21 NIEHS, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, the Sunshine Foundation, the Crown Foundation, and the Parker Foundation.Declaration of Interest: Dr. Boyd received support for the current manuscript from Meso Scale Discovery and NIH;418 received consulting fees by Regeneron for expert testimony, has stocks or stock options in 419 AbCellera Biologics;Dr. Chinthrajah reports grants from NIAID, CoFAR, Aimmune, DBV 420 Technologies, Astellas, Regeneron, Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute 421 (MCHRI), and FARE. She is an Advisory Board Member at Alladapt Therapeutics, Novartis, 422 Genentech, Sanofi, Allergenis, and Nutricia;Dr. Manisha Desai received support from Chan 423 Zuckerberg Foundation;Dr. Maecker received grants or contracts from NIH, Bill & Melinda 424 Gates Foundation, Ionis Corporation, Amgen Corporation;Consulting fees from Magarray Corp;425 payment or honoraria from UCLA, UC Davis;leadership or fiduciary role at Cytek SAB;stocks 426 or stock options at BD Biosciences;Dr. Nadeau reports grants from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE);Director of World Allergy Organization (WAO) , Advisor at Cour Pharma, Consultant for Excellergy, Red tree ventures, and Phylaxis, Co-founder of Before Brands, Alladapt, Latitude, and IgGenix;and National Scientific Committee member at Immune Tolerance Network (ITN), and National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical research centers, outside the submitted work;patents include, “Mixed allergen composition and methods for using the same”, “Granulocyte-based methods for detecting and monitoring immune system disorders”, “Methods and Assays for Detecting and Quantifying Pure Subpopulations of White Blood Cells in Immune System Disorders,” and “Methods of isolating allergen-specific antibodies from humans and uses thereof”;Dr. Benjamin Pinsky received grants or contracts for the present manuscript from MesoScale Diagno tics;Dr. Angele Rogers was a Clinical Trials Advisory Board Member for Merck;Dr. Sindher reports support for the present manuscript from the NIH, Regeneron, DBV Technologies, Aimmune, Novartis, CoFAR, FARE, participated on a DSMB for Astra Zeneca, DBV, and received payment or honorarium from FARE;Neera Ahuja, Maja Artandi, Linda Barman, Catherine Blish, Andra Blomkalns, William Collins, MacKenzie Cox, Linda Geng, Xiaolin Jia, Megan Mahoney, Monali Manohar, Ruth O’hara, Rajan Puri, Katharina Roltgen, Laura Vaughan, Samuel Yang, Shu Cao, Iris Chang, Hena Din, Evan Do, Andrea Fernandez, Alexandra Lee, Natasha Purington, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Theo Snow, Daniel Solis, Michelle Verghese, and Yingjie Weng have no conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: This study was reviewed and approved by the Stanford Administrative Panel on Human Subjects in Medical Research.

2.
Cell ; 185(6): 1025-1040.e14, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649487

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, novel and traditional vaccine strategies have been deployed globally. We investigated whether antibodies stimulated by mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2), including third-dose boosting, differ from those generated by infection or adenoviral (ChAdOx1-S and Gam-COVID-Vac) or inactivated viral (BBIBP-CorV) vaccines. We analyzed human lymph nodes after infection or mRNA vaccination for correlates of serological differences. Antibody breadth against viral variants is lower after infection compared with all vaccines evaluated but improves over several months. Viral variant infection elicits variant-specific antibodies, but prior mRNA vaccination imprints serological responses toward Wuhan-Hu-1 rather than variant antigens. In contrast to disrupted germinal centers (GCs) in lymph nodes during infection, mRNA vaccination stimulates robust GCs containing vaccine mRNA and spike antigen up to 8 weeks postvaccination in some cases. SARS-CoV-2 antibody specificity, breadth, and maturation are affected by imprinting from exposure history and distinct histological and antigenic contexts in infection compared with vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Germinal Center , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414844

ABSTRACT

Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5417, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410404

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens/immunology , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/immunology
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