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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(1), 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2212869

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies are increasingly reporting relative VE (rVE) comparing a primary series plus booster doses with a primary series only. Interpretation of rVE differs from traditional studies measuring absolute VE (aVE) of a vaccine regimen against an unvaccinated referent group. We estimated aVE and rVE against COVID-19 hospitalization in primary-series plus first-booster recipients of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: Booster-eligible immunocompetent adults hospitalized at 21 medical centers in the United States during December 25, 2021–April 4, 2022 were included. In a test-negative design, logistic regression with case status as the outcome and completion of primary vaccine series or primary series plus 1 booster dose as the predictors, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate aVE and rVE. Results: A total of 2060 patients were analyzed, including 1104 COVID-19 cases and 956 controls. Relative VE against COVID-19 hospitalization in boosted mRNA vaccine recipients versus primary series only was 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55%–74%);aVE was 81% (95% CI, 75%–86%) for boosted versus 46% (95% CI, 30%–58%) for primary. For boosted Janssen vaccine recipients versus primary series, rVE was 49% (95% CI, −9% to 76%);aVE was 62% (95% CI, 33%–79%) for boosted versus 36% (95% CI, −4% to 60%) for primary. Conclusions: Vaccine booster doses increased protection against COVID-19 hospitalization compared with a primary series. Comparing rVE measures across studies can lead to flawed interpretations of the added value of a new vaccination regimen, whereas difference in aVE, when available, may be a more useful metric.

2.
MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5152):1625-1630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204208

ABSTRACT

Monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, designed against the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2, successfully reduced COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally (1,2). However, vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization has declined over time, likely related to a combination of factors, including waning immunity and, with the emergence of the Omicron variant and its sublineages, immune evasion (3). To address these factors, on September 1, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a bivalent COVID-19 mRNA booster (bivalent booster) dose, developed against the spike protein from ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 sublineages, for persons who had completed at least a primary COVID-19 vaccination series (with or without monovalent booster doses) >=2 months earlier (4). Data on the effectiveness of a bivalent booster dose against COVID-19 hospitalization in the United States are lacking, including among older adults, who are at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. During September 8-November 30, 2022, the Investigating Respiratory Viruses in the Acutely Ill (IVY) Network assessed effectiveness of a bivalent booster dose received after >=2 doses of monovalent mRNA vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among immunocompetent adults aged >=65 years. When compared with unvaccinated persons, VE of a bivalent booster dose received >=7 days before illness onset (median = 29 days) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 84%. Compared with persons who received >=2 monovalent-only mRNA vaccine doses, relative VE of a bivalent booster dose was 73%. These early findings show that a bivalent booster dose provided strong protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in older adults and additional protection among persons with previous monovalent-only mRNA vaccination. All eligible persons, especially adults aged >=65 years, should receive a bivalent booster dose to maximize protection against COVID-19 hospitalization this winter season. Additional strategies to prevent respiratory illness, such as masking in indoor public spaces, should also be considered, especially in areas where COVID-19 community levels are high (4,5).

3.
EMBO Reports ; : e55286, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204063

ABSTRACT

An increasing amount of evidence emphasizes the role of metabolic reprogramming in immune cells to fight infections. However, little is known about the regulation of metabolite transporters that facilitate and support metabolic demands. In this study, we found that the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3, encoded by solute carrier family 29 member 3, Slc29a3) is part of the innate immune response, which is rapidly upregulated upon pathogen invasion. The transcription of Slc29a3 is directly regulated by type I interferon-induced signaling, demonstrating that this metabolite transporter is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). Suprisingly, we unveil that several viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, require ENT3 to facilitate their entry into the cytoplasm. The removal or suppression of Slc29a3 expression is sufficient to significantly decrease viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals that ENT3 is a pro-viral ISG co-opted by some viruses to gain a survival advantage.

4.
Journal of Virus Eradication ; 8(4):100308, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181183

ABSTRACT

Background: A community COVID-19 outbreak caused by the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant occurred in Taiwan in May 2021. High-risk populations such as people living with HIV (PLWH) were recommended to receive two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. While SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated promising results in general population, real-world information on the serological responses remains limited among PLWH.

5.
American Journal of Cancer Research ; 12(7):3333-3346, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1976011

ABSTRACT

Disulfiram is an FDA-approved drug that has been used to treat alcoholism and has demonstrated a wide range of anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. In the global COVID-19 pandemic, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutics and vaccine development. According to recent studies, disulfiram can act as a potent SARS-CoV-2 replication inhibitor by targeting multiple SARS-CoV-2 non-structural proteins to inhibit viral polyprotein cleavage and RNA replication. Currently, disulfiram is under evaluation in phase II clinical trials to treat COVID-19. With more and more variants of the SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, it becomes critical to know whether disulfiram can also inhibit viral entry into host cells for various variants and replication inhibition. Here, molecular and cellular biology assays demonstrated that disulfiram could interrupt viral spike protein binding with its receptor ACE2. By using the viral pseudo-particles (Vpps) of SARS-CoV-2, disulfiram also showed the potent activity to block viral entry in a cell-based assay against Vpps of different SARS-CoV-2 variants. We further established a live virus model system to support the anti-viral entry activity of disulfiram with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Molecular docking revealed how disulfiram hindered the binding between the ACE2 and wild-type or mutated spike proteins. Thus, our results indicate that disulfiram has the capability to block viral entry activity of different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Together with its known anti-replication of SARS-CoV-2, disulfiram may serve as an effective therapy against different SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
Viruses ; 13(4):09, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210046

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic options for coronaviruses remain limited. To address this unmet medical need, we screened 5406 compounds, including United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and bioactives, for activity against a South Korean Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) clinical isolate. Among 221 identified hits, 54 had therapeutic indexes (TI) greater than 6, representing effective drugs. The time-of-addition studies with selected drugs demonstrated eight and four FDA-approved drugs which acted on the early and late stages of the viral life cycle, respectively. Confirmed hits included several cardiotonic agents (TI > 100), atovaquone, an anti-malarial (TI > 34), and ciclesonide, an inhalable corticosteroid (TI > 6). Furthermore, utilizing the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we tested combinations of remdesivir with selected drugs in Vero-E6 and Calu-3 cells, in lung organoids, and identified ciclesonide, nelfinavir, and camostat to be at least additive in vitro. Our results identify potential therapeutic options for MERS-CoV infections, and provide a basis to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other coronavirus-related illnesses.

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