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1.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started to spread in Daegu beginning at the end of February 2020. IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with moderate to severe symptoms to improve the understanding of antibody responses. METHODS: We enrolled 312 patients with COVID-19 admitted to seven hospitals located in Daegu. Using serum (or plasma) samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, both IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R-FIND CO¬VID-19 ELISA, SG medical, Seoul, Korea). RESULTS: The median value from the initial diagnosis, confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 PCR, to the sampling date was 24 days (day 1 to 88). The total positive rate of IgG was 93.9% and the positive IgM rate was 39.4%, without considering the elapsed period after diagnosis. Positive IgG and IgM rates were highest at 100.0% and 59.0%, respectively, at 3 weeks (15 - 21 days). IgG showed a high positive rate of 79.3% even within 7 days after the initial diag-nosis of the disease and maintained a positive rate of 97.8% until after 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, IgG was detected from the beginning of the diagnosis and persisted for an extended time period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e294, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the first community outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu on February 18, 2020. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6 major hospitals in Daegu. METHODS: Blood specimens of 2,935 HCWs at 6 major hospitals in Daegu from January 2021 to February 2021 were collected. Every specimen was tested for antibody against SARS-CoV-2 using both Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and R-FIND COVID-19 IgG/M/A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (SG medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) as screening tests. If 1 or more of these screening test results was positive, 2 additional antibody tests were performed using Abbott Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript USA Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA). If 2 or more of the total 4 test results were positive, it was determined as positive for the antibody against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: According to the criteria of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity determination, 12 subjects were determined as positive. The overall positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 0.41% (12/2,935). Of the 12 subjects determined as positive, 7 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and the remaining 5 were nondiagnosed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In early 2021, the overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among HCW located in Daegu was 0.41%, and 0.17% excluding COVID-19 confirmed subjects. These results were not particularly high compared with the general public and were much lower than HCWs in other countries.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses have been suggested to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study investigated the inflammatory markers and cytokines in COVID-19 according to its severity. METHODS: We enrolled 49 patients with COVID-19, who were classified as either moderate or critical cases. Serum or plasma interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured. RESULTS: Lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in the critical group than in the moderate group (p < 0.001). IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the critical group, with elevated IL-6 levels from the first to third weeks after confirmed PCR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers and cytokines were increased in COVID-19 and closely related to the severity of the disease. We recommend early active monitoring of IL-6 levels along with inflammatory markers for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Biomarkers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 24-35, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350247

ABSTRACT

Background: Laboratory parameter abnormalities are commonly observed in COVID-19 patients; however, their clinical significance remains controversial. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical impact of laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Daegu, Korea. Methods: We investigated the clinical and laboratory parameters of 1,952 COVID-19 patients on admission in nine hospitals in Daegu, Korea. The average patient age was 58.1 years, and 700 (35.9%) patients were men. The patients were classified into mild (N=1,612), moderate (N=294), and severe (N=46) disease groups based on clinical severity scores. We used chi-square test, multiple comparison analysis, and multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the correlation between laboratory parameters and disease severity. Results: Laboratory parameters on admission in the three disease groups were significantly different in terms of hematologic (Hb, Hct, white blood cell count, lymphocyte%, and platelet count), coagulation (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), biochemical (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes), inflammatory (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), cardiac (creatinine kinase MB isoenzyme and troponin I), and molecular virologic (Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP gene) parameters. Relative lymphopenia, prothrombin time prolongation, and hypoalbuminemia were significant indicators of COVID-19 severity. Patients with both hypoalbuminemia and lymphopenia had a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Conclusions: Laboratory parameter abnormalities on admission are common, are significantly associated with clinical severity, and can serve as independent predictors of COVID-19 severity. Monitoring the laboratory parameters, including albumin and lymphocyte count, is crucial for timely treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Analysis , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Virol Methods ; 296: 114217, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281477

ABSTRACT

Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the demand for an easily accessible high-throughput screening test is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the extrac-tion-free polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a screening test to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Real-time reverse transcription PCR was performed in 300 samples (260 SARS-CoV-2 positives and 40 negatives), using both the conventional nucleic acid extraction method (standard method) and the direct method without nucleic acid extraction (direct method). The overall agreement between the standard and direct methods was 86.8 % (kappa 0.60), and the sensitivity of the direct method compared to the standard method was 85.4 %. When the cycle threshold (Ct) value was less than 35, the sensitivity was approximately 90 %-98 %, and when Ct exceeded 35, it decreased to approximately 60 %-65 %. The extraction-free PCR could be useful as a screening test that processes many samples in a short time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
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