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1.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, there were only 799 confirmed COVID-19 cases in 2020. The unique backdrop amidst a pandemic and promotion of nonpharmaceutical interventions generated some distinct changes in the epidemiology of common respiratory pathogens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in respiratory pathogens in children during 2020. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary hospital in southern Taiwan during 2020. Patients aged 0-18 years who visited the pediatric emergency department were enrolled. Children who presented with clinical symptoms (fever or respiratory illness) and received nasopharyngeal swabs for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our analysis. We also compared respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) trends from previous years by PCR and lateral flow immunochromatographic assays from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A total of 120 children were tested. The overall detection rate was 55%. With strengthened restrictions, the detection rate dropped from 70% to 30%. However, non-enveloped viruses (rhinovirus/enterovirus and adenovirus) were in constant circulation. Upon easing prevention measures, the detection rate remained above 60%, and an outbreak of an enveloped virus (RSV and parainfluenza virus) was noted. Compared with 2017-2019, the cyclical RSV epidemic was delayed, with a large surge in late 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a constant circulation of non-enveloped viruses when strict nonpharmaceutical interventions were employed and a delayed surge of enveloped viruses during the easing of restrictions. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of the evolutionary dynamics of respiratory viruses is important, while easing restrictions requires balanced judgment.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown is an effective nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, but it restricts daily activity. We aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on pediatric body weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Four online databases (EMBASE, Medline, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL) were searched. RESULTS: The pooled results showed that lockdown was associated with significant body weight gain (MD 2.67, 95% CI 2.12-3.23; p < 0.00001). The BMI of children with comorbidities or obesity did not change significantly. The BMI of general population was significantly higher during lockdown than before the pandemic (MD 0.94, 95% CI 0.32-1.56; p = 0.003). However, heterogeneity was high (I2 = 84%). Among changes in weight classification, increases in the rates of obesity (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37; p = 0.0002) and overweight (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29; p = 0.001) were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed significant increases in body weight and BMI during lockdown among school-age children and adolescents. The prevalence of obesity and overweight also increased. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened the burden of childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Social Isolation , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Obes Rev ; 21(11): e13089, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767598

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to examine the effects of body mass index (BMI) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Sixteen articles were finally included in the meta-analysis, and a random effects model was used. BMI was found to be higher in patients with severe disease than in those with mild or moderate disease (MD 1.6, 95% CI, 0.8-2.4; p = .0002) in China; however, the heterogeneity was high (I2 = 75%). Elevated BMI was associated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use (MD 4.1, 95% CI, 2.1-6.1; p < .0001) in Western countries, and this result was consistent across studies (I2 = 0%). Additionally, there were increased odds ratios of IMV use (OR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.4-2.9; p < .0001) and hospitalization (OR 1.4, 95% CI, 1.3-1.60; p < .00001) in patients with obesity. There was no substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). In conclusion, obesity or high BMI increased the risk of hospitalization, severe disease and invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19. Physicians must be alert to these early indicators to identify critical patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(5): 982-989, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-97927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Current studies on pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rare. The clinical characteristics and spectrum are still unknown. Facing this unknown and emerging pathogen, we aimed to collect current evidence about COVID-19 in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in PubMed and Embase to find relevant case series. Because some reports were published in Chinese journals, the journals and publications of the Chinese Medical Association related to COVID-19 were completely reviewed. A random effects model was used to pool clinical data in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Nine case series were included. In the pooled data, most of patients (75%) had a household contact history. The disease severity was mainly mild to moderate (98%). Only 2 children (2%) received intensive care. Fever occurred in 59% of the patients, while cough in 46%. Gastrointestinal symptoms (12%) were uncommon. There are 26% children are asymptomatic. The most common radiographic finding was ground glass opacities (48%). Currently, there is no evidence of vertical transmission to neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Compared with the most relevant virus, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 causes less severe disease. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has distinct features in children. The disease severity is mild. Current diagnosis is based mainly on typical ground glass opacities on chest CT, epidemiological suspicion and contact tracing.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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