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1.
J Affect Disord ; 337: 86-93, 2023 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased depression prevalence in general population. However, the relationship between persistent dysfunctional thinking associated with COVID-19 (perseverative-cognition) and depression, and its potential moderators are understudied. We aimed to examine the association between COVID-19 perseverative-cognition and depression, and the moderating effect of potential risk and protective factors on this association in general public during the peak of fifth COVID-19 wave in Hong Kong. METHODS: This survey recruited 14,269 community-dwelling adults between March 15-April 3, 2022 to investigate association between COVID-19 perseverative-cognition and depression, and the moderating effect of resilience, loneliness and three coping strategies (including emotion-focused, problem-focused and avoidant coping) on this association, using hierarchical regression models and simple slope analyses. COVID-19 perseverative cognition was assessed by the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) and depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Perseverative-cognition was positively associated with depression severity. Resilience, loneliness and three coping strategies moderated the association between perseverative-cognition and depression. Specifically, greater resilience and emotion-focused coping ameliorated the association between perseverative-cognition and depression, while higher levels of loneliness, avoidant and problem-focused coping accentuated such association. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design precluded establishing causality among variables. CONCLUSION: This study affirms that COVID-19 perseverative-cognition is significantly related to depression. Our findings indicate the potential critical role of enhanced personal resilience and social support, and adoption of emotion-focused coping in mitigating negative effect of COVID-19 related maladaptive thinking on depression severity, thereby facilitating development of targeted strategies to reduce psychological distress amidst the prolonged pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Adult , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Cognition
2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(6): 403-413, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorder have a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent poor outcomes. Few studies have evaluated COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness among people with substance use disorder. We aimed to estimate the vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Fosun-BioNTech) and CoronaVac (Sinovac) against SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) infection and related hospital admission in this population. METHODS: We did a matched case-control study using electronic health databases in Hong Kong. Individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder between Jan 1, 2016, and Jan 1, 2022, were identified. People aged 18 years and older with SARS-CoV-2 infection from Jan 1 to May 31, 2022, and people with COVID-19-related hospital admission from Feb 16 to May 31, 2022, were included as cases and were matched by age, sex, and previous clinical history with controls from all individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder who attended the Hospital Authority health services: up to three controls for SARS-CoV-2 infection and up to ten controls for hospital admission. Conditional logistical regression was used to evaluate the association between vaccination status (ie, one, two, or three doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac) and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospital admission, adjusted for baseline comorbidities and medication use. FINDINGS: Among 57 674 individuals with substance use disorder, 9523 people with SARS-CoV-2 infections (mean age 61·00 years, SD 14·90; 8075 [84·8%] males and 1448 [15·2%] females) were identified and matched to 28 217 controls (mean age 60·99 years, 14·67; 24 006 [85·1%] males and 4211 [14·9%] females), and 843 people with COVID-19-related hospital admissions (mean age 70·48 years, SD 14·68; 754 [89·4%] males and 89 [10·6%] females) were identified and matched to 7459 controls (mean age 70·24 years, 13·87; 6837 [91·7%] males and 622 [8·3%] females). Data on ethnicity were not available. We observed significant vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection for two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination (20·7%, 95% CI 14·0-27·0, p<0·0001) and three-dose vaccination (all BNT162b2 41·5%, 34·4-47·8, p<0·0001; all CoronaVac 13·6%, 5·4-21·0, p=0·0015; BNT162b2 booster after two-dose CoronaVac 31·3%, 19·8-41·1, p<0·0001), but not for one dose of either vaccine or two doses of CoronaVac. Significant vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospital admission was detected after one dose of BNT162b2 vaccination (35·7%, 3·8-57·1, p=0·032), two-dose vaccination (both BNT162b2 73·3%, 64·3 to 80·0, p<0·0001; both CoronaVac 59·9%, 50·2-67·7, p<0·0001), and three-dose vaccination (all BNT162b2 86·3%, 75·6-92·3, p<0·0001; all CoronaVac 73·5% 61·0-81·9, p<0·0001; BNT162b2 booster after two-dose CoronaVac 83·7%, 64·6-92·5, p<0·0001), but not after one dose of CoronaVac. INTERPRETATION: For both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, two-dose or three-dose vaccination was protective against COVID-19-related hospital admission and the booster dose provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with substance use disorder. Our findings confirm the importance of booster doses in this population during the period dominated by the omicron variant. FUNDING: Health Bureau, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Hospitals
3.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 17(7): 702-707, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192549

ABSTRACT

AIM: Young people in Hong Kong have been facing numerous population-level events over the past year, including social unrest and the COVID-19 pandemic. Representative data concerning the mental health of youths, however, is limited. The Hong Kong Youth Epidemiological Study of Mental Health (HK-YES) is commissioned to provide the first representative prevalence estimates and correlates of mental disorders among young people in Hong Kong. It will also examine the help-seeking behaviours, treatment rates, quality of life, and functional outcomes of the young people. More importantly, the direct and indirect economic costs of mental disorders in youths will be estimated. METHODS: A total of 4500 community-dwelling participants aged 15-24 years from Hong Kong will be surveyed. Participants will be selected using a multistage stratified sampling design to provide representative estimates of the youth population in Hong Kong. All interviews will be conducted using computer-assisted personal interviewing methods for assessments covering areas of psychiatric diagnoses, symptomatology, functioning, quality of life, disability, service utilization, health economic costs of mental disorders, and sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. A population-weighted prevalence will be estimated using survey weights. Methods such as multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses will be used to calculate the risks and odds of factors that might be associated with different mental disorders. CONCLUSION: As the first population-based youth study in Hong Kong, HK-YES collects extensive and representative data on different mental conditions and their associated factors among young people. The information gathered will be important for future planning on youth mental health services in Hong Kong and will offer the opportunity for a more meaningful comparison of data with other youth populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies
4.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 263-268, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stressors at the population level affect women more than men. The influence of prolonged stressors on mental disorders in women is yet unknown, especially when social movements and pandemics coexist. METHODS: This study analysed data from an online mental health self-help service for women in Hong Kong between May and September 2020. We collected demographic data, PTSD symptoms, and exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events (TEs), pandemic-related traumatic events (PEs), and personal stressful life experiences (SLEs). Multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the links between TEs, PEs, and SLEs and PTSD. RESULTS: The study found that 38.4% of 751 women had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms and 23.8% had probable PTSD. The most common TEs, PEs, and SLEs were violence via media, major physical health concerns, and plans thwarted due to COVID-19, respectively. Younger age, less education, unemployment, and more stressors (individually or collectively, except for high TEs and PEs) were linked to increased odds of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. TEs and PEs increased the risk of probable PTSD only when SLEs were present. LIMITATION: The non-random samplinging procedure reduced the generalisability to the entire women population. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to social conflicts and pandemics may increase depressive and PTSD symptoms in women. Developing mental health services for women should consider the impact of concurrent major events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 56(4): 376-384, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Co-occurring population-level events, such as social unrest and coronavirus disease 2019, are observed in many societies today. Few studies have explored their combined mental health effects on young people. While self-focused rumination has been suggested to be a key mechanism underlying depression, the role of event-based rumination in mediating the impact of population stressors has yet to be elucidated. METHODS: Data were collected from 6988 young people in a large-scale community online survey in Hong Kong. The survey assessed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, direct exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events, coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-related events, personal stressful life events, event-based rumination and other individual risk factors. RESULTS: High levels of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms were observed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that probable post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with traumatic events (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = [1.64, 1.82]), pandemic-related events (odds ratio = 1.08, confidence interval = [1.01, 1.16]), stressful life events (odds ratio = 1.20, confidence interval = [1.21, 1.37]), high event-based rumination (odds ratio = 3.00, confidence interval = [2.58, 3.48]), lower resilience (odds ratio = 1.18, confidence interval = [1.15, 1.21]), higher smartphone reliance (odds ratio = 1.09, confidence interval = [1.05, 1.13]) and financial concerns (odds ratio = 1.25, confidence interval = [1.18, 1.33]). The odds for probable post-traumatic stress disorder was also significantly higher when two or more traumatic events were experienced (odds ratio = 4.03, confidence interval = [3.52, 4.62]). Factors associated with moderate-to-severe level depressive symptoms were similar. Event-based rumination significantly mediated between different types of external events (traumatic events, pandemic-related events, stressful life events) and both post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that diverse types of stressful events during population-level crises could add to personal stressors to affect mental health outcomes in young people. Among other protective and risk factors, event-based rumination presented as a prominent transdiagnostic mediator for different symptom dimensions which may be a potentially important target for early risk detection and intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
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