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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324582

ABSTRACT

Background: Microvascular thrombosis, as well as arterial and venous thrombotic events, have been largely described during severe Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Therapeutic anticoagulation has been proposed in critical patients, however mechanisms underlying hemostasis dysregulation remain unclear. Methods: : We explored two independent cross-sectional cohorts to identify soluble markers and gene-expression signatures that discriminated COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Results: : We found that elevated soluble (s) P-selectin at admission was associated with disease severity. Elevated sP-selectin was predictive of intubation and death (ROC AUC = 0.67, p = 0.028 and AUC = 0.74, p = 0.0047, respectively). An optimal cutoff value of 150 NC (normalized concentration) was predictive of intubation with 66% negative predictive value (NPV) and 61% positive predictive value (PPV), and of death with 90% NPV and 55% PPV. Next, an unbiased gene set enrichment analysis revealed that critically ill patients had increased expression of genes related to primary hemostasis. Hierarchical clustering identified ITG2AB , GP1BB , PPBP and SELPLG to be upregulated in a grade-dependent manner. ROC curve analysis for the prediction of mechanical ventilation was significant for SELPLG and PPBP (AUC = 0.8, p = 0.046 for both markers). An optimal cutoff value for PBPP was predictive of mechanical ventilation with 100% NPV and 45% PPV, and for SELPLG was predictive of mechanical ventilation with 100% NPV and 50% PPV. Conclusion: We provide evidence that platelets contribute to disease severity with the identification of sP-selectin as a biomarker for poor outcome. Transcriptional analysis identified PPBP and SELPLG RNA count as biomarkers for mechanical ventilation. These findings provide rationale for novel therapeutic approaches with antiplatelet agents.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307952

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is generally milder than in adults, yet a proportion of cases result in hyperinflammatory conditions often including myocarditis. To better understand these cases, we applied a multi-parametric approach to the study of blood cells of 56 children hospitalized with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most severe forms of MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to SARS-CoV-2), that resulted in myocarditis, were characterized by elevated levels of pro-angiogenesis cytokines and several chemokines. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses identified a unique monocyte/dendritic cell gene signature that correlated with the occurrence of severe myocarditis, characterized by sustained NF-κ B activity, TNF-α signaling, associated with decreased gene expression of NF-κ B inhibitors. We also found a weak response to type-I and type-II interferons, hyperinflammation and response to oxidative stress related to increased HIF-1α and VEGF signaling. These results provide potential for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology.Funding: The study was supported by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), by the “URGENCE COVID-19” fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur, by the Atip-Avenir, Emergence ville de Paris program and fond de dotation Janssen Horizon and by government grants managed by the Agence National de la Recherche as part of the “Investment for the Future” program (Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, grant ANR-10-IAHU-01, Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire, grant ANR-18-RHUS-0010, Laboratoire d’Excellence ‘‘Milieu Intérieur”, grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01), the Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires (CEREDIH), the Agence National de la Recherche (ANR-flash Covid19 “AIROCovid” to FRL and “CoVarImm” to DD and JDS), and by the FASTFoundation (French Friends of Sheba Tel Hashomer Hospital). The LabTech Single-Cell@Imagine is supported by the Paris Region and the “Investissements d’avenir” program through the 2019 ATF funding – Sésame Filières PIA (Grant N°3877871).CdC is the recipient of a CIFRE-PhD (Sanofi). L.B. was a recipient of an Imagine institute PhD international program supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. L.B. was also supported by the EUR G.E.N.E. (reference #ANR-17-EURE-0013) and is part of the Université de Paris IdEx #ANR-18-IDEX-0001 funded by the French Government through its“Investments for the Future” program. S.M. was a recipient of an INSERM and Institut Imagine post-doctorat program supported by the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRMN°SPF20170938825). NS was a recipient of the Pasteur-Roux-Cantarini Fellowship. VGP obtained an Imagine international PhD fellowship program supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. BPP is the recipient of an ANRS post-doctoral fellowship.Conflict of Interest: DD, FRL, JT and MMM are listed as inventors on a patent application related to this technology (European Patent Application no. EP21305197, entitled “Methods of predicting multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) with severe myocarditis in subjects suffering from a SARS-CoV-2 infection”).Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Ouest IV, n° DC-2017-2987).

3.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1519110

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by impaired type I interferon activity and a state of hyperinflammation leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The complement system has recently emerged as a key player in triggering and maintaining the inflammatory state, but the role of this molecular cascade in severe COVID-19 is still poorly characterized. Objective We aimed at assessing the contribution of complement pathways at both protein and transcriptomic levels. Methods To this end, we systematically assessed RNA levels of 28 complement genes in circulating whole blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, including genes of the alternative pathway, for which data remain scarce. Results We found differential expression of genes involved in the complement system, yet with various expression patterns: while patients displaying moderate disease had elevated expression of classical pathway genes, severe disease was associated with increased lectin and alternative pathway activation, which correlated with inflammation and coagulopathy markers. Additionally, properdin, a pivotal positive regulator of the alternative pathway, showed high RNA expression but was found at low protein concentrations in severe and critical patients, suggesting its deposition at the sites of complement activation. Notably, low properdin levels were significantly associated with the use of mechanical ventilation (AUC = 0.82, p = 0.002). Conclusion This study sheds light on the role of the alternative pathway in severe COVID-19 and provides additional rationale for the testing of drugs inhibiting the alternative pathway of the complement system. We show that activation of the alternative complement pathway characterizes COVID-19 severity. Specifically, low properdin levels were associated with use of mechanical ventilation. This work provides a rationale for the specific inhibition of the alternative complement pathway.

4.
Med (N Y) ; 2(9): 1072-1092.e7, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is generally milder than in adults, but a proportion of cases result in hyperinflammatory conditions often including myocarditis. METHODS: To better understand these cases, we applied a multiparametric approach to the study of blood cells of 56 children hospitalized with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Plasma cytokine and chemokine levels and blood cellular composition were measured, alongside gene expression at the bulk and single-cell levels. FINDINGS: The most severe forms of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 that resulted in myocarditis were characterized by elevated levels of pro-angiogenesis cytokines and several chemokines. Single-cell transcriptomics analyses identified a unique monocyte/dendritic cell gene signature that correlated with the occurrence of severe myocarditis characterized by sustained nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling and associated with decreased gene expression of NF-κB inhibitors. We also found a weak response to type I and type II interferons, hyperinflammation, and response to oxidative stress related to increased HIF-1α and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide potential for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. FUNDING: Agence National de la Recherche (Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, grant ANR-10-IAHU-01; Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire, grant ANR-18-RHUS-0010; Laboratoire d'Excellence ''Milieu Intérieur," grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01; ANR-flash Covid19 "AIROCovid" and "CoVarImm"), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), and the "URGENCE COVID-19" fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Monocytes , NF-kappa B , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
5.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1428-1439, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392873

ABSTRACT

Coordinated local mucosal and systemic immune responses following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection either protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies or fail, leading to severe clinical outcomes. To understand this process, we performed an integrated analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies, cytokines, viral load and bacterial communities in paired nasopharyngeal swabs and plasma samples from a cohort of clinically distinct patients with COVID-19 during acute infection. Plasma viral load was associated with systemic inflammatory cytokines that were elevated in severe COVID-19, and also with spike-specific neutralizing antibodies. By contrast, nasopharyngeal viral load correlated with SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses but inversely with interferon responses, the latter associating with protective microbial communities. Potential pathogenic microorganisms, often implicated in secondary respiratory infections, were associated with mucosal inflammation and elevated in severe COVID-19. Our results demonstrate distinct tissue compartmentalization of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and highlight a role for the nasopharyngeal microbiome in regulating local and systemic immunity that determines COVID-19 clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Microbiota/immunology , Nasopharynx/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Mucosal , Interferons/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load , Young Adult
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365116

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, yet the role of antiviral T cell immunity during infection and the contribution of immune checkpoints remain unclear. By prospectively following a cohort of 292 patients with melanoma, half of which treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), we identified 15 patients with acute or convalescent COVID-19 and investigated their transcriptomic, proteomic, and cellular profiles. We found that ICI treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 and did not alter the induction of inflammatory and type I interferon responses. In-depth phenotyping demonstrated expansion of CD8 effector memory T cells, enhanced T cell activation, and impaired plasmablast induction in ICI-treated COVID-19 patients. The evaluation of specific adaptive immunity in convalescent patients showed higher spike (S), nucleoprotein (N), and membrane (M) antigen-specific T cell responses and similar induction of spike-specific antibody responses. Our findings provide evidence that ICI during COVID-19 enhanced T cell immunity without exacerbating inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Melanoma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/virology
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11886, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341009

ABSTRACT

The cholinergic system has been proposed as a potential regulator of COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia. We investigated whole-blood expression of cholinergic system members and correlated it with COVID-19 severity. Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and healthy aged-matched controls were included in this non-interventional study. A whole blood sample was drawn between 9-11 days after symptoms onset, and peripheral leukocyte phenotyping, cytokines measurement, RNA expression and plasma viral load were determined. Additionally, whole-blood expression of native alpha-7 nicotinic subunit and its negative dominant duplicate (CHRFAM7A), choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine esterase (AchE) were determined. Thirty-seven patients with COVID-19 (10 moderate, 11 severe and 16 with critical disease) and 14 controls were included. Expression of CHRFAM7A was significantly lower in critical COVID-19 patients compared to controls. COVID-19 patients not expressing CHRFAM7A had higher levels of CRP, more extended pulmonary lesions and displayed more pronounced lymphopenia. COVID-19 patients without CHRFAM7A expression also showed increased TNF pathway expression in whole blood. AchE was also expressed in 30 COVID-19 patients and in all controls. COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia is associated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory dominant negative duplicate CHRFAM7A. Expression of this duplicate might be considered before targeting the cholinergic system in COVID-19 with nicotine.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 113, 2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microvascular, arterial and venous thrombotic events have been largely described during severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). However, mechanisms underlying hemostasis dysregulation remain unclear. METHODS: We explored two independent cross-sectional cohorts to identify soluble markers and gene-expression signatures that discriminated COVID-19 severity and outcomes. RESULTS: We found that elevated soluble (s)P-selectin at admission was associated with disease severity. Elevated sP-selectin was predictive of intubation and death (ROC AUC = 0.67, p = 0.028 and AUC = 0.74, p = 0.0047, respectively). An optimal cutoff value was predictive of intubation with 66% negative predictive value (NPV) and 61% positive predictive value (PPV), and of death with 90% NPV and 55% PPV. An unbiased gene set enrichment analysis revealed that critically ill patients had increased expression of genes related to platelet activation. Hierarchical clustering identified ITG2AB, GP1BB, PPBP and SELPLG to be upregulated in a grade-dependent manner. ROC curve analysis for the prediction of intubation was significant for SELPLG and PPBP (AUC = 0.8, p = 0.046 for both). An optimal cutoff value for PBPP was predictive of intubation with 100% NPV and 45% PPV, and for SELPLG with 100% NPV and 50% PPV. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that platelets contribute to COVID-19 severity. Plasma sP-selectin level was associated with severity and in-hospital mortality. Transcriptional analysis identified PPBP/CXCL7 and SELPLG as biomarkers for intubation. These findings provide additional evidence for platelet activation in driving critical COVID-19. Specific studies evaluating the performance of these biomarkers are required.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11886, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275949

ABSTRACT

The cholinergic system has been proposed as a potential regulator of COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia. We investigated whole-blood expression of cholinergic system members and correlated it with COVID-19 severity. Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and healthy aged-matched controls were included in this non-interventional study. A whole blood sample was drawn between 9-11 days after symptoms onset, and peripheral leukocyte phenotyping, cytokines measurement, RNA expression and plasma viral load were determined. Additionally, whole-blood expression of native alpha-7 nicotinic subunit and its negative dominant duplicate (CHRFAM7A), choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine esterase (AchE) were determined. Thirty-seven patients with COVID-19 (10 moderate, 11 severe and 16 with critical disease) and 14 controls were included. Expression of CHRFAM7A was significantly lower in critical COVID-19 patients compared to controls. COVID-19 patients not expressing CHRFAM7A had higher levels of CRP, more extended pulmonary lesions and displayed more pronounced lymphopenia. COVID-19 patients without CHRFAM7A expression also showed increased TNF pathway expression in whole blood. AchE was also expressed in 30 COVID-19 patients and in all controls. COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia is associated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory dominant negative duplicate CHRFAM7A. Expression of this duplicate might be considered before targeting the cholinergic system in COVID-19 with nicotine.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics
10.
Science ; 369(6504): 718-724, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641396

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by distinct patterns of disease progression that suggest diverse host immune responses. We performed an integrated immune analysis on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients with various disease severity. A distinct phenotype was observed in severe and critical patients, consisting of a highly impaired interferon (IFN) type I response (characterized by no IFN-ß and low IFN-α production and activity), which was associated with a persistent blood viral load and an exacerbated inflammatory response. Inflammation was partially driven by the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB and characterized by increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production and signaling. These data suggest that type I IFN deficiency in the blood could be a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and provide a rationale for combined therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon alpha-2/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Viral Load
11.
Angiogenesis ; 23(4): 611-620, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease has been associated with ischemic complications, coagulation disorders, and an endotheliitis. OBJECTIVES: To explore endothelial damage and activation-related biomarkers in COVID-19 patients with criteria of hospitalization for referral to intensive care unit (ICU) and/or respiratory worsening. METHODS: Analysis of endothelial and angiogenic soluble markers in plasma from patients at admission. RESULTS: Study enrolled 40 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to emergency department that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization. Half of them were admitted in conventional wards without any ICU transfer during hospitalization; whereas the 20 others were directly transferred to ICU. Patients transferred in ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2 and increased D-dimer, CRP and creatinine levels. In those patients, soluble E-selectin and angiopoietin-2 were significantly increased (p value at 0.009 and 0.003, respectively). Increase in SELE gene expression (gene coding for E-selectin protein) was confirmed in an independent cohort of 32 patients using a whole blood gene expression profile analysis. In plasma, we found a strong association between angiopoetin-2 and CRP, creatinine and D-dimers (with p value at 0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). ROC curve analysis identified an Angiopoietin-2 cut-off of 5000 pg/mL as the best predictor for ICU outcome (Se = 80.1%, Sp = 70%, PPV = 72.7%, NPV = 77%), further confirmed in multivariate analysis after adjustment for creatinine, CRP or D-dimers. CONCLUSION: Angiopoietin-2 is a relevant predictive factor for ICU direct admission in COVID-19 patients. This result showing an endothelial activation reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Angiopoietin-2/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Critical Care/methods , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
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