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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337649

ABSTRACT

Over the course of the pandemic variants have arisen at a steady rate. The most recent variants to emerge, BA.4 and BA.5, form part of the Omicron lineage and were first found in Southern Africa where they are driving the current wave of infection. In this report, we perform an in-depth characterisation of the antigenicity of the BA.4/BA.5 Spike protein by comparing sera collected post-vaccination, post-BA.1 or BA.2 infection, or post breakthrough infection of vaccinated individuals with the Omicron variant. In addition, we assess sensitivity to neutralisation by commonly used therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We find sera collected post-vaccination have a similar ability to neutralise BA.1, BA.2 and BA.4/BA.5. In contrast, in the absence of vaccination, prior infection with BA.2 or, in particular, BA.1 results in an antibody response that neutralises BA.4/BA.5 poorly. Breakthrough infection with Omicron in vaccinees leads to a broad neutralising response against the new variants. The sensitivity of BA.4/BA.5 to neutralisation by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies was similar to that of BA.2. These data suggest BA.4/BA.5 are antigenically distinct from BA.1 and, to a lesser extent, BA.2. The enhanced breadth of neutralisation observed following breakthrough infection with Omicron suggests that vaccination with heterologous or multivalent antigens may represent viable strategies for the development of cross-neutralising antibody responses.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 409, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821622

ABSTRACT

RaTG13 is a close relative of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, sharing 96% sequence similarity at the genome-wide level. The spike receptor binding domain (RBD) of RaTG13 contains a number of amino acid substitutions when compared to SARS-CoV-2, likely impacting affinity for the ACE2 receptor. Antigenic differences between the viruses are less well understood, especially whether RaTG13 spike can be efficiently neutralised by antibodies generated from infection with, or vaccination against, SARS-CoV-2. Using RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes we compared neutralisation using convalescent sera from previously infected patients or vaccinated healthcare workers. Surprisingly, our results revealed that RaTG13 was more efficiently neutralised than SARS-CoV-2. In addition, neutralisation assays using spike mutants harbouring single and combinatorial amino acid substitutions within the RBD demonstrated that both spike proteins can tolerate multiple changes without dramatically reducing neutralisation. Moreover, introducing the 484 K mutation into RaTG13 resulted in increased neutralisation, in contrast to the same mutation in SARS-CoV-2 (E484K). This is despite E484K having a well-documented role in immune evasion in variants of concern (VOC) such as B.1.351 (Beta). These results indicate that the future spill-over of RaTG13 and/or related sarbecoviruses could be mitigated using current SARS-CoV-2-based vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Chiroptera/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782008

ABSTRACT

In the light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we have developed a porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) model for in depth mechanistic evaluation of the pathogenesis, virology and immune responses of this important family of viruses. Pigs are a large animal with similar physiology and immunology to humans and are a natural host for PRCV. Four PRCV strains were investigated and shown to induce different degrees of lung pathology. Importantly, although all four strains replicated equally well in porcine cell lines in vitro and in the upper respiratory tract in vivo, PRCV strains causing more severe lung pathology were also able to replicate in ex vivo tracheal organ cultures as well as in vivo in the trachea and lung. The time course of infection of PRCV 135, which caused the most severe pulmonary pathology, was investigated. Virus was shed from the upper respiratory tract until day 10 post infection, with infection of the respiratory mucosa, as well as olfactory and sustentacular cells, providing an excellent model to study upper respiratory tract disease in addition to the commonly known lower respiratory tract disease from PRCV. Infected animals made antibody and T cell responses that cross reacted with the four PRCV strains and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus. The antibody response was reproduced in vitro in organ cultures. Comparison of mechanisms of infection and immune control in pigs infected with PRCVs of differing pathogenicity with human data from SARS-CoV-2 infection and from our in vitro organ cultures, will enable key events in coronavirus infection and disease pathogenesis to be identified.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488802

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vectored vaccines have entered global use during the COVID-19 pandemic, and are in development for multiple other human and veterinary applications. An attraction of the technology is the suitability of the vaccines for storage at 2-8 °C for months. Widely used COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (University of Oxford/AstraZeneca) is based on a species E simian adenovirus. Species E simian serotypes have been used in a wide range of other development programs, but the stability of such vectors has not been extensively described in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we explore the stability of two candidate vaccines based on two species E serotypes: a Rift Valley fever vaccine based upon the ChAdOx1 vector (Y25 serotype) used in ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and a rabies vaccine based upon a ChAdOx2 vector (AdC68 serotype). We describe each vector's stability in liquid and lyophilised formulations using in vitro and in vivo potency measurements. Our data support the suitability of liquid formulations of these vectors for storage at 2-8 °C for up to 1 year, and potentially for nonrefrigerated storage for a brief period during last-leg distribution (perhaps 1-3 days at 20 °C-the precise definition of acceptable last-leg storage conditions would require further product-specific data). Depending upon the level of inprocess potency loss that is economically acceptable, and the level of instorage loss that is compatible with maintenance of acceptable end-of-storage potency, a previously reported lyophilised formulation may enable longer term storage at 20 °C or storage for a number of days at 30 °C.

5.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(12): 815-822, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275932

ABSTRACT

Since the initial use of vaccination in the eighteenth century, our understanding of human and animal immunology has greatly advanced and a wide range of vaccine technologies and delivery systems have been developed. The COVID-19 pandemic response leveraged these innovations to enable rapid development of candidate vaccines within weeks of the viral genetic sequence being made available. The development of vaccines to tackle emerging infectious diseases is a priority for the World Health Organization and other global entities. More than 70% of emerging infectious diseases are acquired from animals, with some causing illness and death in both humans and the respective animal host. Yet the study of critical host-pathogen interactions and the underlying immune mechanisms to inform the development of vaccines for their control is traditionally done in medical and veterinary immunology 'silos'. In this Perspective, we highlight a 'One Health vaccinology' approach and discuss some key areas of synergy in human and veterinary vaccinology that could be exploited to accelerate the development of effective vaccines against these shared health threats.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Species Specificity , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
6.
J Virol ; 95(4)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075935

ABSTRACT

Swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infection causes substantial economic loss and disease burden in humans and animals. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A virus is now endemic in both populations. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of different vaccines in reducing nasal shedding in pigs following pH1N1 virus challenge. We also assessed transmission from immunized and challenged pigs to naive, directly in-contact pigs. Pigs were immunized with either adjuvanted, whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines or virus-vectored (ChAdOx1 and MVA) vaccines expressing either the homologous or heterologous influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, as well as an influenza virus pseudotype (S-FLU) vaccine expressing heterologous HA. Only two vaccines containing homologous HA, which also induced high hemagglutination inhibitory antibody titers, significantly reduced virus shedding in challenged animals. Nevertheless, virus transmission from challenged to naive, in-contact animals occurred in all groups, although it was delayed in groups of vaccinated animals with reduced virus shedding.IMPORTANCE This study was designed to determine whether vaccination of pigs with conventional WIV or virus-vectored vaccines reduces pH1N1 swine influenza A virus shedding following challenge and can prevent transmission to naive in-contact animals. Even when viral shedding was significantly reduced following challenge, infection was transmissible to susceptible cohoused recipients. This knowledge is important to inform disease surveillance and control strategies and to determine the vaccine coverage required in a population, thereby defining disease moderation or herd protection. WIV or virus-vectored vaccines homologous to the challenge strain significantly reduced virus shedding from directly infected pigs, but vaccination did not completely prevent transmission to cohoused naive pigs.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Swine Diseases/transmission , Virus Shedding , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Female , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 542, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044339

ABSTRACT

There is need for effective and affordable vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to tackle the ongoing pandemic. In this study, we describe a protein nanoparticle vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine is based on the display of coronavirus spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a synthetic virus-like particle (VLP) platform, SpyCatcher003-mi3, using SpyTag/SpyCatcher technology. Low doses of RBD-SpyVLP in a prime-boost regimen induce a strong neutralising antibody response in mice and pigs that is superior to convalescent human sera. We evaluate antibody quality using ACE2 blocking and neutralisation of cell infection by pseudovirus or wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Using competition assays with a monoclonal antibody panel, we show that RBD-SpyVLP induces a polyclonal antibody response that recognises key epitopes on the RBD, reducing the likelihood of selecting neutralisation-escape mutants. Moreover, RBD-SpyVLP is thermostable and can be lyophilised without losing immunogenicity, to facilitate global distribution and reduce cold-chain dependence. The data suggests that RBD-SpyVLP provides strong potential to address clinical and logistic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Multimerization , Swine
8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5(1): 69, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689622

ABSTRACT

Clinical development of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, a replication-deficient simian adenoviral vector expressing the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein was initiated in April 2020 following non-human primate studies using a single immunisation. Here, we compared the immunogenicity of one or two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in both mice and pigs. Whilst a single dose induced antigen-specific antibody and T cells responses, a booster immunisation enhanced antibody responses, particularly in pigs, with a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres.

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