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Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e224-e233, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017763


BACKGROUND: The public health impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. METHODS: Using a mathematical model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, COVID-19 disease and clinical care, we explore the public-health impact of different potential therapeutics, under a range of scenarios varying healthcare capacity, epidemic trajectories; and drug efficacy in the absence of supportive care. RESULTS: The impact of drugs like dexamethasone (delivered to the most critically-ill in hospital and whose therapeutic benefit is expected to depend on the availability of supportive care such as oxygen and mechanical ventilation) is likely to be limited in settings where healthcare capacity is lowest or where uncontrolled epidemics result in hospitals being overwhelmed. As such, it may avert 22% of deaths in high-income countries but only 8% in low-income countries (assuming R = 1.35). Therapeutics for different patient populations (those not in hospital, early in the course of infection) and types of benefit (reducing disease severity or infectiousness, preventing hospitalization) could have much greater benefits, particularly in resource-poor settings facing large epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in the treatment of COVID-19 to date have been focused on hospitalized-patients and predicated on an assumption of adequate access to supportive care. Therapeutics delivered earlier in the course of infection that reduce the need for healthcare or reduce infectiousness could have significant impact, and research into their efficacy and means of delivery should be a priority.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Cost of Illness , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008806, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874147


Clinical spectrum of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, especially with regard to the presence of pneumonia. We aimed to describe the clinical course and final outcomes of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the full spectrum of disease severity. We also aimed to identify potential predictive factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective study among adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between January 8 and April 16, 2020. One-hundred-and-ninety-three patients were included. The median (IQR) age was 37.0 (29.0-53.0) years, and 58.5% were male. The median (IQR) incubation period was 5.5 (3.0-8.0) days. More than half (56%) of the patients were mild disease severity, 22% were moderate, 14% were severe, and 3% were critical. Asymptomatic infection was found in 5%. The final clinical outcomes in 189 (97.9%) were recovered and 4 (2.1%) were deceased. The incidence of pneumonia was 39%. The median (IQR) time from onset of illness to pneumonia detection was 7.0 (5.0-9.0) days. Bilateral pneumonia was more prevalent than unilateral pneumonia. In multivariable logistic regression, increasing age (OR 2.55 per 10-year increase from 30 years old; 95% CI, 1.67-3.90; p<0.001), obesity (OR 8.74; 95%CI, 2.06-37.18; p = 0.003), and higher temperature at presentation (OR 4.59 per 1°C increase from 37.2°C; 95% CI, 2.30-9.17; p<0.001) were potential predictive factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. Across the spectrum of disease severities, most patients with COVID-19 in our cohort had good final clinical outcomes. COVID-19 pneumonia was found in one-third of them. Older age, obesity, and higher fever at presentation were independent predictors of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult