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1.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927803

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Although mortality from COVID-19 increases with advanced age, most older adults survive a COVID hospitalization. Disability, or dependence in functional activities, is known to increase after a serious illness among older adults, with adverse consequences for patients, families, and society. Little is known about disability, and the factors associated with disability, after a COVID hospitalization among older adults. Methods: We enrolled 341 older (≥60 years) adults during their index COVID-19 hospitalization between 7/6/2020-6/24/2021 from five hospitals in the Yale-New Haven Health System. Upon enrollment, participants underwent an assessment of baseline (prehospitalization) disability, frailty, general health, social support, hearing, vision, mental health, and assessments of current (in-hospital) symptom burden and cognitive function. These assessments were linked to EMR data including demographics, SOFA score, comorbidities, biomarkers, respiratory support, pressors, length of stay, and COVIDspecific treatments. Disability was assessed at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months by asking about dependence in 15 basic, instrumental, and mobility activities. The primary outcome was the disability count (0-15) over the 6 months after the COVID hospitalization. The analytic sample included 304 participants who survived their hospitalization and had at least one post-discharge follow-up. We determined the mean (SD) number of disabilities over the 6 months after discharge and evaluated 27 factors for their association with the 6-month disability count using backwards selection based on minimization of the Bayesian Information Criterion with a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution and adjustment for baseline disability count and months of follow-up. Results: The mean age was 71.2 years (SD 8.5), 158 (51.8%) were women, and 108 (35.5%) were of nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity (Table). The mean prehospitalization disability count was 2.2 (SD 3.4), and the mean disability count over the 6 months after the COVID hospitalization was 2.9 (SD 3.7). In the multivariable model, greater baseline disability, older age, higher BMI, higher comorbidity count, cognitive dysfunction, greater symptom burden during the hospitalization, and the need for advanced respiratory support were all associated with greater disability over the 6 months after a COVID hospitalization. Conclusions: Other than the need for advanced respiratory support, factors associated with disability after a COVID hospitalization among older adults reflect vulnerability at baseline (comorbidities, baseline disability, age, BMI) or during the hospitalization (symptom burden, cognitive dysfunction), rather than biomarkers or severity of illness. These factors may identify older adults for referral to Post-COVID clinic programs to improve the likelihood of functional recovery after discharge. (Table Presented).

2.
Strategic Management During a Pandemic ; : 196-220, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893136

ABSTRACT

During the COVID pandemic with the employees in the different sectors working from home, there was perceptually spare time for self-development and enhancement of knowledge. The objective of the paper is to understand whether the same was perceived as an opportunity by the professionals and fruitfully utilized this spare time. The key purpose of this research paper is to study the professionals from the service sector to understand their view on the enhancement of their learning during the COVID pandemic. One hundred and twenty valid responses were collected from professionals in different industries. Statistical tools were used to find out the reliability statistics;factor analysis was done to identify the core factors and significant relationship of different cofactors and the satisfaction level was analyzed. The analysis indicated two main factors for online learning of the professionals: “upskilling or skill enhancement” and “utilization of spare time”, which explained 68.166% of the variance. The research highlighted the importance that professionals have placed on their upskilling and reskilling during the COVID pandemic through online modes and how industries can realign their learning and development programs for their employees using this medium. A framework has been proposed, using which organizations can be productive in upskilling their workforce amidst the new evolving working environment due to the pandemic. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Arunava Dalal, Ajay Kumar Ganguly and Subrata Chattopadhyay.

5.
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies ; 294:395-431, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877790

ABSTRACT

City-making is a process in which several endogenous and exogenous variables associated with socio-economic, environmental, historical, and physical parameters play a significant role. The neoliberal and market-led notion of smart cities is highly criticized by many scholars for its polarized and inequitable approach to development. The traditional communities have continued for generations and inherit a unique living and residential culture bestowing them with an inherent smartness quotient. This concept of smartness for city planning is even more critical during the present times to understand the impact of the spatial structure of existing cities to deal with the COVID-19 outbreak. Authors identify a strong need to merge the two concepts of traditional communities and urban smartness for a holistic approach to building smart communities. This study aims to assess the smart spatial attributes of the traditional neighborhood-level urban communities such as compactness, walkability, and diversity. Primary household surveys were conducted in the walled city of Alwar, Rajasthan, India. The case study reveals compactly designed residential enclaves known as mohallas with mixed land use. The indigenous spatial elements such as squares (chowks), markets (bazaars), and streets (gali) proved to be crucial community gathering places for these settlements. Such zero-level assessment of existing socio-cultural and spatial attributes may enable the appropriate integration of intelligent technologies into our urban systems. Authors recommend harnessing the untapped potential of traditional communities in culturally rich countries like India to achieve the goals of a smart community. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
Epidemiology ; 70(SUPPL 1):S219, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1853988

ABSTRACT

Background: Mortality from COVID increases with age, but most older adults survive. Little is known about disability after COVID hospitalization. Methods: We enrolled 341 adults ≥60 years during their index COVID hospitalization between 7/2020-6/2021 from 5 hospitals. Participants underwent assessment of baseline (pre-hospital) disability, frailty, general health, social support, hearing, vision, mental health, & in-hospital symptom burden and cognitive function. Assessments were linked to health record data, including comorbidities, SOFA score, biomarkers, respiratory support, & COVID-specific treatments. Disability in 15 functional activities was assessed again at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome was mean disability count over 6 months after discharge. The analytic sample included 304 participants with ≥1 post-discharge follow-up. We evaluated 27 factors for their association with the primary outcome using backward selection with a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution & adjustment for baseline disability & months of follow-up. Results: Mean age was 71.2 yrs (SD 8.5);52% were women and 36% of nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity. Mean baseline disability count was 2.2 (SD 3.4). Mean disability count over the 6 months after discharge was 2.9 (SD 3.7). Greater baseline disability, older age, higher BMI, higher comorbidity count, cognitive dysfunction, greater symptom burden, and need for advanced respiratory support were associated with greater post-hospitalization disability (Table). Conclusions: Baseline vulnerability factors as well as in-hospital symptom burden, cognitive dysfunction, and advanced respiratory support were associated with increased disability after a COVID hospitalization. There was no association with COVIDspecific treatments or biomarkers. These factors may identify older adults with the most potential to benefit from efforts to improve functional recovery.

7.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(SUPPL 1):i606, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795302

ABSTRACT

Myocardial dysfunction is common and associated with worse outcomes in patients with ARDS, pulmonary embolism or severe sepsis due to pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction. Thrombotic events, myocarditis and endothelial dysfunction may contribute to these effects in COVID- 19 infection. The evaluation of myocardial function can provide prognostic information regarding the severity of a current COVID-19 infection, but scarce data available on the role of Deformation Indices obtained by Speckle Tracking Analysis to describe unique features of myocardial dysfunction in COVID-19 pneumonitis. AIMS: to evaluate the value of ventricular and atrial Deformation Imaging in patients with COVID- 19 infection and hypoxia who had preserved systolic function in comparison with age-, gender-, BSA, hypoxia-matched control subjects with respiratory disease on oxygen therapy, thus excluding the effects of pulmonary vasoconstriction. We also assessed the impact of biochemical and inflammatory markers on the Echo-Indices. METHODS: 21 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-pneumonitis (15 males, age:60.1 ± 16.1yrs, range:43-89) and 31 control, PCR-negative subjects (age:62.8 ± 15.5yrs, range:22-92) on oxygen with matched biometric data were compared. 2 examiners, blinded to the clinical data performed off-line standard Echocardiographic assessment and Deformation Imaging by 2D-Speckle Tracking Analysis with the TomTec Arena software package (Unterschleissheim, Germany) in both ventricles and atria. Plasma chemistry data were compared between the groups. RESULTS: No differences found in the biometric data and the cardiac chamber sizes between the groups. The global systolic strain indices were reduced in the COVID-group in the LV, but not the EF (LV-GLS -13.6 ± 2.9 vs -16 ± 1.1%, LV-GCS -24.8 ± 2.4 vs -28.9 ± 2.8%, p = 0.001, LVEF 61 ± 3.7 vs 60.7 ± 4.9%, p = NS), and these were reduced in the RV and RA, but not the TAPSE and TDI-S' when compared to the controls (RV-FWS -12.3 ± 2.9 vs -16.2 ± 1.5%, RV-GLS -14.6 ± 3.4 vs -17.1 ± 1.7%, RASr 18.5 ± 6 vs 22.3 ± 4.8% p = 0.005. Interestingly, the dispersion of contraction was increased in the COVID-patients in both the LV (LV-SD 416.2 ± 81.8 vs 309.8 ± 69.8ms, p < 0.001) and the RV and the RA (RV-SD 414.9 ± 117 vs 303.8 ± 61ms, RA-SD 33.5 ± 6.7 vs 26.1 ± 4.7ms, p < 0.001). The right heart indices correlated well with the biochemical data (RV-FWS and RV-SD with Ferritin r = 0.54 and -0.46, p = 0.003, RASr with GLS r = 0.64, p = 0.002, RA-SD with Troponin, p = 0.01 and with the RV-coupling Index r = 0.72, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial dysfunction is common among severely ill and hypoxic COVID-19 patients. The conventional Echo-parameters of systolic function or pulmonary pressures do not appear being specific but the Deformation Indices can provide tools to detect unique changes of the myocardial function and dys-synchrony imposed by the COVID-19 infection, independently from the impact of hypoxia or raised pulmonary pressures, hence they can predict outcome more accurately.

9.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326810

ABSTRACT

Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 as a serious pandemic has altered the global socioeconomic dynamics. The wide prevalence, high death counts and rapid emergence of new variants urge for establishment of research infrastructure to facilitate rapid development of efficient therapeutic modalities and preventive measures. In agreement with this, five SARS-CoV2 strains (ILS01, ILS02, ILS03, ILS15 and ILS24) of four different clades (19A, 19B, 20A and 20B) were isolated from patient swab samples collected during the 1stCOVID-19 wave in Odisha, India. The viral isolates were adapted to in-vitro cultures and further characterized to identify strain specific variations in viral growth characteristics. All the five isolates showed substantial amount of virus induced CPE however ILS03 belonging to 20A clade displayed highest level of CPE. Time kinetics experiment revealed spike protein expression was evident after 16th hours post infection in all five isolates. ILS03 induced around 90% of cytotoxicity. Further, the susceptibility of various cell lines (human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7), CaCo2 cell line, HEK-293T cells, Vero, Vero-E6, BHK-21, THP-1 cell line and RAW 264.7 cells) were assessed. Surprisingly, it was found that the human monocyte cells THP-1 and murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were permissive to all the SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The neutralization susceptibility of viral isolates to vaccine-induced antibodies was determined using sera from individuals vaccinated in the Government run vaccine drive in India. The micro-neutralization assay suggested that both Covaxin and Covishield vaccines were equally effective (100% neutralization) against all of the isolates. The whole genome sequencing of culture adapted viral isolates and viral genome from patient oropharyngeal swab sample suggested that repetitive passaging of SARS-CoV2 virus in Vero-E6 cells did not lead to emergence of many mutations during the adaptation in cell culture. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the five isolates clustered to respective clades. The major goal was to isolate and adapt SARS-CoV-2 viruses in in-vitro cell culture with minimal modification to facilitate research activities involved in understanding the molecular virology, host-virus interactions, application of these strains for drug discovery and animal challenge models development which eventually will contribute towards the development of effective and reliable therapeutics.

10.
International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1612793

ABSTRACT

Forecasting time series present a perpetual topic of research in statistical machine learning for the last five decades. Due to the unprecedented outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), forecasting the COVID-19 pandemic became a key research interest for both epidemiologists and statisticians. These future predictions are useful for the effective allocation of health care resources, stockpiling, and help in strategic planning for clinicians, government authorities, and public-health policymakers. This paper develops an effective forecasting model that can generate real-time short-term (ten days) and long-term (fifty days) out-of-sample forecasts of COVID-19 outbreaks for eight profoundly affected countries, namely the United States of America, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, Mexico, Spain, and Iran. A novel hybrid approach based on the Theta method and Autoregressive neural network (ARNN) model, named Theta-ARNN (TARNN) model, is proposed. The proposed method outperforms previously available single and hybrid forecasting models for COVID-19 predictions in most data sets. The ergodicity and asymptotic stationarity of the TARNN model are also studied.

11.
Smart-Journal of Business Management Studies ; : 11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1579967

ABSTRACT

In the recent times, one can witness a radical change in the digitalization of the world, which is taking place especially in India. Expediency, multipurpose and advanced benefits to the consumers have significantly contributed to the success of new technology. In the new Indian digital world, an increased number of people have started using e-wallets for their basic needs like medicines, grocery items and vegetables, etc. While a lot of online spending through digital wallets was happening before Covid 19 outbreak, the fact remains that 50% were made by using cash on delivery. But due to pandemic Covid 19, it also helped to revive this online spending through e-wallets. Thus emergence of e-wallets is very important. This has generated the need to study consumer perception towards e-wallets. With the help of Chi Square, the study came to the conclusion that there was significant association between Gender, Age, Educational Qualification, Income and Profession and different brands of e-wallets.

12.
Indian Journal of Ecology ; 48:89-93, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1329375

ABSTRACT

Advancement in technology has been a boon for mankind. It has helped in all segments and industries and the educational sector is no different. There have been new modes of delivering education, engaging with the learners, and enriching the learners' knowledge through the use of technology. The Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdowns that were implemented across many countries only helped in accelerating the adaption of these new technologies bringing in an innovative online teaching-learning pedagogy. The necessity of continuing with the education process and enhancing knowledge during a lockdown situation has led to a spectacular awareness of online education. This paper looks into the impact of online education from the students' perspective, they being the main recipients of this process, and the views of the faculties who are the enablers. It also tried to understand the effects that the external ecosystem consisting of technology partners, content developers, and the organizations in the online education sector have in developing the online teaching-learning process. The paper through primary research has looked into the benefits and drawbacks of this education model, the learnings which can be used in the future to make this an innovative teaching-learning methodology even post the Covid-19 era. © 2021 Ecological Society of India. All rights reserved.

13.
TripleC ; 19(1):140-153, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-971953

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to understand the emerging practices of work from home drawing from the works of Friedrich Engels. Situating the rising debate on work from home, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this article revisits some of the texts by Friedrich Engels to understand the issues of distribution, freedom, necessity and work. The idea of work from home becomes especially critical in the context of a developing country like India, with its limited access to digital infrastructure, inadequate work-space at home, and precarious work conditions. However, the digital network and devices play a pivotal role under these conditions and often offer a promise of “new freedom” and flexibility. It is not just the middle-class professionals, but several other dimensions of work and labour are implicated within the idea of work from home under sudden economic and social disruption. The new organisation of production, assisted by capitalism, forges new relations of production, and new predicaments and Engels's thoughts on freedom, work and the condition of the working class become increasingly relevant to understand these shifts, particularly in neoliberal, developing country like India under nationwide lockdown. © 2020, Unified Theory of Information Research Group. All rights reserved.

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